11 - Impacts of strong warm ocean currents on development of extratropical cyclones through the warm and cold conveyor belts: A review
"Recent high-resolution observations and numerical simulations have revealed active roles of the ocean in the mid-latitude climate system. In this chapter, we review recent studies on the topic especially focusing on roles of strong oceanic warm currents and associated sea surface temperature (SST) frontal structures in the development of extratropical cyclones, which can cause extreme rainfall/snowfall. Speed of the warm strong ocean currents such as the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension and activities of associated mesoscale eddies have strong influence on SST and its meridional[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Hidetaka Hirata et al.
Quantifying Nitrous Oxide Cycling Regimes in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean With Isotopomer Analysis
"Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is produced disproportionately in marine oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). To quantify spatiotemporal variation in N2O cycling in an ODZ, we analyzed N2O concentration and isotopologues along a transect through the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP). At several stations along this transect, N2O concentrations reached a near surface maximum that exceeded prior measurements in this region, of up to 226.1 ± 20.5 nM at the coast. Above the σθ = 25.0 kg/m3 isopycnal, Keeling plot analysis revealed two sources[...]"
Source: AGU- Advanced Earth and Space Science
Author: Colette L. Kelly et al.
Read the full article here.
Effects of Experimental Ocean Acidification on the Larval Morphology and Metabolism of a Temperate Sparid, Chrysoblephus laticeps
"Ocean acidification is predicted to have widespread impacts on marine species. The early life stages of fishes, being particularly sensitive to environmental deviations, represent a critical bottleneck to recruitment. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification (∆pH = −0.4) on the oxygen consumption and morphometry during the early ontogeny of a commercially important seabream, Chrysoblephus laticeps, up until flexion. Hatchlings appeared to be tolerant to hypercapnic conditions, exhibiting no difference in oxygen consumption or morphometry between treatments, although the yolk reserves were marginally reduced in the low-pH treatment. The preflexion stages appeared[...]"
Authors: Cuen Muller et al.
Sensitivity of 21st-century projected ocean new production changes to idealized biogeochemical model structure
"While there is agreement that global warming over the 21st century is likely to influence the biological pump, Earth system models (ESM) display significant divergence in their projections of future new production. This paper quantifies and interprets the sensitivity of projected changes in new production in an idealized global ocean-biogeochemistry model. The model includes two tracers that explicitly represent nutrient transport, light- and nutrient-limited nutrient uptake by the ecosystem (new production), and export via sinking organic particles. Globally, new production declines with warming due to reduced surface nutrient availability, as expected. However, the magnitude[...]"
Authors: Genevieve Jay Brett et al.
Simulating shrubs and their energy and carbon dioxide fluxes in Canada's Low Arctic with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme Including biogeochemical Cyc
"The Arctic is warming more rapidly than other regions of the world leading to ecosystem change including shifts in vegetation communities, permafrost degradation and alteration of tundra surface-atmosphere energy and carbon (C) fluxes, among others. However, year-round C and energy flux measurements at high-latitude sites remain rare. This poses a challenge for evaluating the impacts of climate change on Arctic tundra ecosystems and for developing and evaluating process-based models, which may be used to predict regional and global energy and C feedbacks to the climate system. Our study used 14 years of seasonal eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), water and energy fluxes and winter soil chamber CO2 flux measurements at a dwarf-shrub tundra site underlain by continuous permafrost in Canada's Southern Arctic ecozone to evaluate the incorporation[...]"
Authors: Gesa Meyer et al.
A transient swing to higher oxygen levels in the atmosphere and oceans at ~1.4 Ga
"The mid-Proterozoic (1.8–0.8 Ga) may have witnessed persistent and predominant anoxia at the Earth’s surface. However, recent studies suggest that there was a period around ~1.4 Ga where oxygen levels might have been transiently elevated, both in the atmosphere and oceans. In order to shed light on this debated topic, we analyzed rare earth elements plus Y (REY) and Cr isotope profiles of the carbonate rocks from the ~1.44-Gyr-old Tieling Formation consisting of the lower Daizhuangzi (DZZ) and upper Laohuding (LHD) Members at the Jixian section, North China. The DZZ samples are characterized by middle REE enriched, hump-shaped REY distribution patterns, while those of the LHD Member display[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Wei Wei et al.
Glacial heterogeneity in Southern Ocean carbon storage abated by fast South Indian deglacial carbon release
"Past changes in ocean 14C disequilibria have been suggested to reflect the Southern Ocean control on global exogenic carbon cycling. Yet, the volumetric extent of the glacial carbon pool and the deglacial mechanisms contributing to release remineralized carbon, particularly from regions with enhanced mixing today, remain insufficiently constrained. Here, we reconstruct the deglacial ventilation history of the South Indian upwelling hotspot near Kerguelen Island, using high-resolution 14C-dating of smaller-than-conventional foraminiferal samples and multi-proxy deep-ocean oxygen[...]"
Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Julia Gottschalk et al.
In situ observations show vertical community structure of pelagic fauna in the eastern tropical North Atlantic off Cape Verde
"Distribution patterns of fragile gelatinous fauna in the open ocean remain scarcely documented. Using epi-and mesopelagic video transects in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which features a mild but intensifying midwater oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we established one of the first regional observations of diversity and abundance of large gelatinous zooplankton. We quantified the day and night vertical distribution of 46 taxa in relation to environmental conditions. While distribution may be driven by multiple factors, abundance peaks of individual taxa were observed in the OMZ[...]"
Source: Nature Scientific Reports
Authors: H. J. T. Hoving et al.
New Webinar Series on Ocean Deoxygenation
Do you want to know more about deoxygenation in the ocean?
Join us for the upcoming webinar!
Wednesday, 9th December 2020, 15:00 h – 16:00 h CET
The Global Ocean Oxygen Network (IOC Expert Working Group GO2NE) starts a new series on ocean deoxygenation. The second webinar will take place 9 December 2020. The speakers will present latest science on the impacts of reduced oxygen in the open ocean and coastal zones. Each webinar will feature two presentations by a more senior and an earlier-career scientist, 20 minutes each followed by 10 minutes moderated discussion sessions.
Reviews and syntheses: Present, past, and future of the oxygen minimum zone in the northern Indian Ocean
"Decreasing concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the ocean are fuconsidered one of the main threats to marine ecosystems as they jeopardize the growth of higher organisms. They also alter the marine nitrogen cycle, which is strongly bound to the carbon cycle and climate. While higher organisms in general start to suffer from oxygen concentrations < ∼ 63 µM (hypoxia), the marine nitrogen cycle responds to oxygen concentration below a threshold of about 20 µM (microbial hypoxia), whereas anoxic processes dominate the nitrogen cycle at oxygen concentrations of < ∼ 0.05 µM (functional anoxia). The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are home to approximately 21 % of the total volume of ocean waters revealing microbial hypoxia. While in the Arabian Sea this oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is also functionally anoxic[...]"
Authors: Tim Rixen et al.