Distribution of planktonic biogenic carbonate organisms in the Southern Ocean south of Australia: a baseline for ocean acidification impact assessment
"The Southern Ocean provides a vital service by absorbing about one-sixth of humankind's annual emissions of CO2. This comes with a cost – an increase in ocean acidity that is expected to have negative impacts on ocean ecosystems. The reduced ability of phytoplankton and zooplankton to precipitate carbonate shells is a clearly identified risk. The impact depends on the significance of these organisms in Southern Ocean ecosystems, but there is very little information on their abundance or distribution."
Authors: Thomas W. Trull et al.
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Investigating the impacts of treated effluent discharge on coastal water health (Visakhapatnam, SW coast of Bay of Bengal, India)
"The present study investigated the impacts of treated effluent discharge on physicochemical and biological properties of coastal waters from three pharmaceuticals situated along the coast of Visakhapatnam (SW Bay of Bengal). Seawater samples were collected (during the months of December 2013, March 2014 and April 2014) from different sampling locations (Chippada (CHP), Tikkavanipalem (TKP) and Nakkapalli (NKP)) at 0- and 30-m depths within 2-km radius (0.5 km = inner, 1 km = middle and 2 km = outer sampling circles) from the marine outfall points. [...]"
Source: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Authors: Aziz Ur Rahman Shaik et al.
Turbulence and hypoxia contribute to dense zooplankton scattering layers in Patagonian Fjord System
"Abstract. The Puyuhuapi Fjord is an atypical fjord, with two mouths, located in northern Patagonia (44.7° S). One mouth lies to the south, close to the Pacific Ocean, whilst the second connects with the Jacaf Channel to the north where a shallow sill inhibits deep water ventilation contributing to the hypoxic conditions below ~ 100 m depth. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler moorings, scientific echo sounder transects, and in-situ abundance measurements were used to study zooplankton assemblages and migration patterns along Puyuhuapi Fjord and Jacaf Channel. […]"
Source: Ocean Science (in review)
Authors: Iván Pérez-Santos et al.
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Role of zooplankton in determining the efficiency of the biological carbon pump
"The efficiency of the ocean's biological carbon pump (BCPeff – here the product of particle export and transfer efficiencies) plays a key role in the air–sea partitioning of CO2. Despite its importance in the global carbon cycle, the biological processes that control BCPeff are poorly known. We investigate the potential role that zooplankton play in the biological carbon pump using both in situ observations and model output. Observed and modelled estimates of fast, slow, and total sinking fluxes are presented from three oceanic sites: the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, the temperate North Atlantic, and the equatorial Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ)."
Authors: Emma L. Cavan et al.
Differential effects of nitrate, ammonium, and urea as N sources for microbial communities in the North Pacific Ocean
"Nitrogen (N) is the major limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth and productivity in large parts of the world's oceans. Differential preferences for specific N substrates may be important in controlling phytoplankton community composition. To date, there is limited information on how specific N substrates influence the composition of naturally occurring microbial communities. We investigated the effect of nitrate ( ), ammonium ( ), and urea on microbial and phytoplankton community composition (cell abundances and 16S rRNA gene profiling) and functioning (photosynthetic activity, carbon fixation rates) in the oligotrophic waters of the North Pacific Ocean. [...]"
Source: Limonology and Oceanography
Authors: I.N. Shilova et al.
Nutrients that limit growth in the ocean
"Phytoplankton form the basis of the marine food web and are responsible for approximately half of global carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation (∼ 50 Pg of carbon per year). Thus, these microscopic, photosynthetic organisms are vital in controlling the atmospheric CO2 concentration and Earth’s climate. Phytoplankton are dependent on sunlight and their CO2-fixation activity is therefore restricted to the upper, sunlit surface ocean (that is, the euphotic zone). CO2 usually does not limit phytoplankton growth due to its high concentration in seawater. [...]"
Source: Current Biology
Authors: Laura A. Bristow
A Review of Protist Grazing Below the Photic Zone Emphasizing Studies of Oxygen-Depleted Water Columns and Recent Applications of In situ Approaches
"Little is still known of the impacts of protist grazing on bacterioplankton communities in the dark ocean. Furthermore, the accuracy of assessments of in situ microbial activities, including protist grazing, can be affected by sampling artifacts introduced during sample retrieval and downstream manipulations. Potential artifacts may be increased when working with deep-sea samples or samples from chemically unique water columns such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). OMZs are oxygen-depleted regions in the ocean, where oxygen concentrations can drop to <20 μM. These regions are typically located near eastern boundary upwelling systems and currently occur in waters occupying below about 8% of total ocean surface area, representing ~1% of the ocean's volume. [...]"
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Luis E. Medina et al.