Pelagic microplastics in surface water of the Eastern Indian Ocean during monsoon transition period: Abundance, distribution, and characteristics
"Microplastics (MPs) have been documented in almost all marine environments, including coastal regions, the open ocean, and the deep sea. However, relatively little knowledge was available about MP pollution in the open ocean, especially the Indian Ocean. We conducted field observations at 36 stations in the Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO), using a typical manta trawl with a mesh size of 330 μm for surface water sampling. Ours is the first study to obtained comprehensive and comparable baseline data about MPs in the EIO, including abundance, spatial distribution and characteristics[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Changjun Li et al.
Climate field completion via Markov random fields – Application to the HadCRUT4.6 temperature dataset
"Surface temperature is a vital metric of Earth’s climate state, but is incompletely observed in both space and time: over half of monthly values are missing from the widely used HadCRUT4.6 global surface temperature dataset. Here we apply GraphEM, a recently developed imputation method, to construct a spatially complete estimate of HadCRUT4.6 temperatures. GraphEM leverages Gaussian Markov random fields (aka Gaussian graphical models) to better estimate covariance relationships within a climate field, detecting anisotropic features such as land/ocean contrasts, orography, ocean currents and wave-propagation pathways.[...]"
Source: AMS- American Meteorological Society
Authors: Adam Vaccaro et al.
Role of tide-induced vertical mixing in the deep Pacific Ocean circulation
"We investigate the control mechanisms of the deep Pacific Ocean circulation by introducing updated methods for parameterizing tidal mixing. The column-integrated rates of dissipation in near- and far-fields are derived from the tidal energy conversion and dissipation rates estimated by a high resolution tide model. In the calculation of the far-field mixing, its dependency on stratification is taken into account based on theoretical and observational knowledge.Unlike previous studies that did not take the stratification dependence into account, the far-field mixing does not function to significantly enhance the deep Pacific Ocean circulation. The deep Pacific Ocean circulation is also found to be insensitive to the decay scale height of the near-field mixing. However, these factors affect the reproducibility of the[...]"
Source: Journal of Oceanography
Authors: Takao Kawasaki et al.
Atlantic Ocean science diplomacy in action: the pole-to-pole All Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance
"The ocean provides important ecosystem services to society, but its health is in crisis due to the impacts of human activities. Ocean sustainability requires ambitious levels of scientific evidence to support governance and management of human activities that impact the ocean. However, due to the size, complexity and connectivity of the ocean, monitoring and data collection presupposes high investments, and nations need to cooperate to deliver the ambitious, costly science that is required to inform decisions[...]"
Source: Nature - Humanities and Social Sciences Communications
Authors: Andrei Polejack et al.
Emerging Solutions to Return Nature to the Urban Ocean
"Urban and periurban ocean developments impact 1.5% of the global exclusive economic zones, and the demand for ocean space and resources is increasing. As we strive for a more sustainable future, it is imperative that we better design, manage, and conserve urban ocean spaces for both humans and nature. We identify three key objectives for more sustainable urban oceans: reduction of urban pressures, protection and restoration of ocean ecosystems, and support of critical ecosystem services. We describe an array of emerging evidence-based approaches, including greening grayinfrastructure, restoring habitats, and developing biotechnologies.
Source: ANNUAL REVIEWS
Authors: Laura Airoldi et al.
11 - Impacts of strong warm ocean currents on development of extratropical cyclones through the warm and cold conveyor belts: A review
"Recent high-resolution observations and numerical simulations have revealed active roles of the ocean in the mid-latitude climate system. In this chapter, we review recent studies on the topic especially focusing on roles of strong oceanic warm currents and associated sea surface temperature (SST) frontal structures in the development of extratropical cyclones, which can cause extreme rainfall/snowfall. Speed of the warm strong ocean currents such as the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension and activities of associated mesoscale eddies have strong influence on SST and its meridional[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Hidetaka Hirata et al.
A benthic oxygen oasis in the early Neoproterozoic ocean
"Benthic oxygen oases linked to photosynthetic mats have been reported in modern anoxic aquatic systems. Benthic macroalgal blooms were common in stratified, anoxic Neoproterozoic oceans, leading us to hypothesize the existence of benthic oxygen oases at that time. This hypothesis has significant implications regarding the bioavailability of transition metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, Ni, Mo, V) and the distribution of aerobic eukaryotes in these oceans. However, little research has been directed toward testing the benthic oxygen[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors:Haiyang Wang et al.
Calibration of temperature-dependent ocean microbial processes in the cGENIE.muffin (v0.9.13) Earth system model
"Temperature is a master parameter in the marine carbon cycle, exerting a critical control on the rate of biological transformation of a variety of solid and dissolved reactants and substrates. Although in the construction of numerical models of marine carbon cycling, temperature has been long recognised as a key parameter in the production and export of organic matter at the ocean surface, its role in the ocean interior is much less frequently accounted for. There, bacteria (primarily) transform sinking particulate organic matter (POM) into its dissolved constituents and consume dissolved oxygen (and/or other electron acceptors such as sulfate). The nutrients and carbon[...]"
Source: EGU- European Geosciences Union
Authors: Katherine A. Crichton
Regional patterns and temporal evolution of ocean iron fertilization and CO2 drawdown during the last glacial termination
"The last time Earth's climate experienced geologically rapid global warming was associated with the last glacial termination, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose from 180 ppmv during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26-19 kaBP) to ∼260 ppmv by the early Holocene (12-8 kaBP). About one quarter of that difference is thought to be due to a stronger biological pump during glacial times, driven by increased aeolian dust deposition and hence greater iron availability in[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Fabrice Lambert et al.
Fossil evidence for vampire squid inhabiting oxygen-depleted ocean zones since at least the Oligocene
"A marked 120 My gap in the fossil record of vampire squids separates the only extant species (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) from its Early Cretaceous, morphologically-similar ancestors. While the extant species possesses unique physiological adaptations to bathyal environments with low oxygen concentrations, Mesozoic vampyromorphs inhabited epicontinental shelves. However, the timing of their retreat towards bathyal and oxygen-depleted habitats is poorly documented. Here, we document a first record of a post-Mesozoic vampire squid from the Oligocene of the Central Paratethys[...]"
Source: Nature - Communications Biology
Authors: Martin Košťák et al.