A pole-to-equator ocean ousverturning circulation on Encelad
"Enceladus is believed to have a saltwater global ocean, heated at the ocean–core interface and losing heat to the floating ice shell above. This configuration suggests an important role for vertical convection. The ice shell has dramatic meridional thickness variations that, in steady state, must be sustained by the ocean circulation against processes acting to remove these anomalies. This could be achieved through spatially separated regions of freezing and melting at the ocean–ice interface. Here, we use an idealized[...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authours: Ana H. Lobo et al.
Iron isotopes trace primordial magma ocean cumulates melting in Earth’s upper mantle
"The differentiation of Earth ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago is believed to have culminated in magma ocean crystallization, crystal-liquid separation, and the formation of mineralogically distinct mantle reservoirs. However, the magma ocean model remains difficult to validate because of the scarcity of geochemical tracers of lower mantle mineralogy. The Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) of ancient mafic rocks can be used to reconstruct the mineralogy of their mantle source regions. We present Fe isotope data for 3.7-Ga metabasalts from the Isua Supracrustal Belt (Greenland). The δ57Fe signatures[...]"
Source: Science Advances
Authors: Helen M. Williams et al.
Stable isotopic composition of top consumers in Arctic cryoconite holes: revealing divergent roles in a supraglacial trophic network
"Arctic cryoconite holes represent highly biologically active aquatic habitats on the glacier surface characterized by the dynamic nature of their formation and functioning. The most common cryoconite apex consumers are the cosmopolitan invertebrates – tardigrades and rotifers. Several studies have highlighted the potential relevance of tardigrades and rotifers to cryoconite holes' ecosystem functioning. However, due to the dominant occurrence of prokaryotes, these consumers are usually out of the major scope of most studies aimed at understanding biological processes on glaciers. The aim of this descriptive study is to present pioneering[...]"
Authors: Tereza Novotná Jaroměřská et al.
Protecting the global ocean biodiversity, food and climate
"The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services1,2, but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected3. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue, here we developed a conservation planning framework to prioritize highly protected MPAs in places that would result in multiple benefits today and in the future. We find that a substantial increase in ocean protection could have triple benefits, by protecting biodiversity[...]"
Authors: Enric Sala et al.