Oxygen minimum zone-type biogeochemical cycling in the Cenomanian-Turonian Proto-North Atlantic across Oceanic Anoxic Event 2


"Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) in Earth's history are regarded as analogues for current and future ocean deoxygenation, potentially providing information on its pacing and internal dynamics. In order to predict the Earth system's response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations and radiative forcing, a sound understanding of how biogeochemical cycling differs in modern and ancient marine environments is required. [...]"

Source: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Authors: Florian Scholz et al.
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.04.008

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Investigating the effect of El Niño on nitrous oxide distribution in the eastern tropical South Pacific


"The open ocean is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O), an atmospheric trace gas attributable to global warming and ozone depletion. Intense sea-to-air N2O fluxes occur in major oceanic upwelling regions such as the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP). The ETSP is influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation that leads to inter-annual variations in physical, chemical, and biological properties in the water column. In October 2015, a strong El Niño event was developing in the ETSP; we conduct field observations to investigate (1) the N2Oproduction pathways and associated biogeochemical properties and (2) the effects of El Niño on water column N2O distributions and fluxes using data from previous non-El Niño years. [...]"

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Qixing Ji et al.
DOI: 10.5194/bg-16-2079-2019

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Dual nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria


"Natural abundance of stable nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopes are invaluable biogeochemical tracers for assessing the N transformations in the environment. To fully exploit these tracers, the N and O isotope effects (15ε and 18ε) associated with the respective nitrogen transformation processes must be known. [...]"

Source: The ISME Journal
Authors: Kanae Kobayashi et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41396-019-0440-x

Read the full article here.

Identifying the origin of nitrous oxide dissolved in deep ocean by concentration and isotopocule analyses


"Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Although its major sources are regarded as bacterial or archaeal nitrification and denitrification in soil and water, the origins of ubiquitous marine N2O maximum at depths of 100–800 m and N2O dissolved in deeper seawater have not been identified. [...]"

Source: Scientific Reports 
Authors: Sakae Toyoda et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-44224-0

Read the full article here.

The Equatorial Undercurrent and the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Pacific


"Warming‐driven expansion of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the equatorial Pacific would bring very low oxygen waters closer to the ocean surface, and possibly impact global carbon/nutrient cycles and local ecosystems. Global coarse Earth System Models (ESMs) show, however, disparate trends that poorly constrain these future changes in the upper OMZ. [...]"

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Julius J.M. Busecke, Laure Resplandy and John P. Dunne
DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082692

Read the full article here.

Diversity and relative abundance of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms in the offshore Namibian hypoxic zone


"Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2) and NO2 to nitrate (NO3), plays a vital role in ocean nitrogen cycling. Characterizing the distribution of nitrifying organisms over environmental gradients can help predict how nitrogen availability may change with shifting ocean conditions, for example, due to loss of dissolved oxygen (O2). [...]"

Source: PLoS ONE
Authors: Evan Lau et al.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217136

Read the full article here.

Ammonium availability in the Late Archaean nitrogen cycle


"The bioavailability of essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus has fluctuated with the chemical evolution of Earth surface environments over geological timescales. However, significant uncertainty remains over the evolution of Earth’s early nitrogen cycle, particularly how and when it responded to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. [...]"

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: J. Yang et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0371-1

Read the full article here.

Diapycnal dissolved organic matter supply into the upper Peruvian oxycline


"The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) hosts the Peruvian upwelling system, which represents one of the most productive areas in the world ocean. High primary production followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world ocean, where dissolved oxygen (O2) concentrations reach less than 1 µmol kg−1. [...]"

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Alexandra N. Loginova et al.
DOI: 10.5194/bg-16-2033-2019

Read the full article here.

Flooding Makes Big 'Dead Zone' Off Louisiana Coast Likely

"The year's widespread flooding has made it likely that a big, oxygen-starved "dead zone" off Louisiana's coast will form this summer, the head of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science said Thursday. Preliminary computer model runs "indicate a large to very large year," for the area where there's too little oxygen to support marine life, Steven Thur told the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Task Force during a meeting livestreamed from Baton Rouge. [...]"

Source: The New York Times

Read the full article here.


Variations in ocean deoxygenation across Earth System Models: Isolating the role of parametrized lateral mixing


"Modern Earth System Models (ESMs) disagree on the impacts of anthropogenic global warming on the distribution of oxygen and associated low‐oxygen waters. A sensitivity study using the GFDL CM2Mc model points to the representation of lateral mesoscale eddy transport as a potentially important factor in such disagreement. Because mesoscale eddies are smaller than the spatial scale of ESM ocean grids, their impact must be parameterized using a lateral mixing coefficient AREDI. [...]"

Source: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Authors: A. Bahl, A. Gnanadesikan and M.‐A. Pradal
DOI: 10.1029/2018GB006121

Read the full article here.

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