Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics reveal broadly distributed, active, novel methanotrophs in the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone
"The northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) hypoxic zone is a shallow water environment where methane, a potent greenhouse gas, fluxes from sediments to bottom water and remains trapped due to summertime stratification. When the water column is destratified, an active planktonic methanotrophic community could mitigate the efflux of methane, which accumulates to high concentrations, to the atmosphere. To investigate the possibility of such a biofilter in the nGOM hypoxic zone we performed metagenome assembly, and metagenomic and metatranscriptomic read mapping. Methane monooxygenase (pmoA) was an abundant [...]".
Source: Oxford Academic
Authors: Kathryn L. Howe et al.
Subpolar gyre decadal variability explains the recent oxygenation in the Irminger Sea
"Accurate monitoring of the long-term trend of oxygen content at global scale requires a better knowledge of the regional oxygen variability at interannual to decadal time scale. Here, we combined the Argo dataset and repeated ship-based sections to investigate the drivers of the oxygen variability in the North Atlantic Ocean, a key region for the oxygen supply into the deep ocean. We focus on the Labrador Sea Water in the Irminger Sea over the period 1991–2018 and we show that the oxygen solubility explains less than a third of the oxygen variability. [...]".
Authors: Charlène Feucher et al.
Calcium isotope ratios of malformed foraminifera reveal biocalcification stress preceded Oceanic Anoxic Event 2
"Ocean acidification causes biocalcification stress. The calcium isotope composition of carbonate producers can archive such stress because calcium isotope fractionation is sensitive to precipitation rate. Here, we synthesize morphometric observations of planktic foraminifera with multi-archive calcium isotope records from Gubbio, Italy and the Western Interior Seaway spanning Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (~94 million years ago). Calcium isotope ratios increase ~60 thousand years prior to the event. [...]".
Authors: Gabriella D. Kitch et al.
Carbon pump dynamics and limited organic carbon burial during OAE1a
"Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) are conspicuous intervals in the geologic record that are associated with the deposition of organic carbon (OC)-rich marine sediment, linked to extreme biogeochemical perturbations, and characterized by widespread ocean deoxygenation. Mechanistic links between the marine biological carbon pump (BCP), redox conditions, and organic carbon burial during OAEs, however, remain poorly constrained. In this work we reconstructed the BCP in the western Tethys Ocean across OAE1a (~120 Mya) using sediment geochemistry and OC mass accumulation rates (OCAcc). [...]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Kohen W. Bauer et al.
Nitrous Oxide Distributions in the Oxygenated Water Column of the Sargasso Sea
"This study presents dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station and uses a subset of these measurements to estimate air-to-sea flux for four specific time points between September 2018 and June 2019. N2O concentrations at BATS were in the range of 4.0 nmol L−1–16.9 nmol L−1, with vertical profiles which were the mirror inverse of dissolved oxygen. Regardless of season, N2O concentration maxima were found within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). The highest maximum N2O values were observed in November and lowest in October. [...]".
Source: Taylor & Francis Online
Authors: Annaliese C.S. Meyer et al.
Offshore wind farms are projected to impact primary production and bottom water deoxygenation in the North Sea
"The wind wake effect of offshore wind farms affects the hydrodynamical conditions in the ocean, which has been hypothesized to impact marine primary production. So far only little is known about the ecosystem response to wind wakes under the premisses of large offshore wind farm clusters. Here we show, via numerical modeling, that the associated wind wakes in the North Sea provoke large-scale changes in annual primary production with local changes of up to ±10% not only at the offshore wind farm clusters, but also distributed over a wider region. [...]".
Authors: Ute Daewel et al.
Recovery from microplastic-induced marine deoxygenation may take centuries
"Climate change and plastics pollution are dual threats to marine environments. Here we use biogeochemical and microplastic modelling to show that even if there is complete removal of microplastics and cessation of deposition in the oceans in 2022, regional recovery from microplastic-induced remineralization and water column deoxygenation could take hundreds of years for coastal upwelling zones, the North Pacific and Southern Ocean. [...]".
Authors: Karin Kvale & Andreas Oschlies
The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone was similar in extent but weaker during the Last Glacial Maximum than Late Holocene
"Quantifying past oxygen concentrations in oceans is crucial to improving understanding of current global ocean deoxygenation. Here, we use a record of pore density of the epibenthic foraminifer Planulina limbata from the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone to reconstruct oxygen concentrations in bottom waters from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Late Holocene at 17.5°S about 500 meters below the sea surface. We found that oxygen levels were 40% lower during the Last Glacial Maximum than during the Late Holocene (about 6.7 versus 11.1 µmol/kg, respectively). [...]".
Authors: Nicolaas Glock et al.
Diverging Fates of the Pacific Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone and Its Core in a Warming World
"Global ocean oxygen loss is projected to persist in the future, but Earth system models (ESMs) have not yet provided a consistent picture of how it will influence the largest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the tropical Pacific. We examine the change in the Pacific OMZ volume in an ensemble of ESMs from the CMIP6 archive, considering a broad range of oxygen (O2) thresholds relevant to biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems (5–160 µmol/kg). Despite OMZ biases in the historical period of the simulations, the ESM ensemble projections consistently fall into three regimes across ESMs […]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Julius J.M. Busecke et al.
Oxygen and irradiance constraints on visual habitat in a changing ocean: The luminoxyscape
"Changing oxygen conditions are altering the distribution of many marine animals. Zooplankton vertical distributions are primarily attributed to physiological tolerance and/or avoidance of visual predation. Recent findings reveal that visual function in marine larvae is highly sensitive to oxygen availability, but it is unknown how oxygen, which affects light sensitivity and generates limits for vision, may affect the distribution of animals that rely heavily on this sensory modality. This study introduces the concept of a “visual luminoxyscape” to demonstrate how combinations of limiting oxygen and light could constrain the habitat of marine larvae with oxygen-demanding vision. [...]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Lillian R. McCormick et al.
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