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Decoupled oxygenation of the Ediacaran ocean and atmosphere during the rise of early animals

Abstract. 

"The Ediacaran Period (∼635 to 541 Ma) witnessed the early diversification and radiation of metazoans, in the form of the Ediacaran Biota. This biological revolution, beginning at ∼575 Ma, has been widely attributed to a temporally restricted episode of deeper ocean oxygenation, potentially caused by a contemporaneous rise in atmospheric oxygen levels. However, quantitative geochemical-record-driven estimates of Ediacaran atmospheric and oceanic redox evolution are lacking, and hence possible links between oceanic and atmospheric oxygenation remain speculative. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Wei Shi et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117619

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Constraints on Early Paleozoic deep-ocean oxygen concentrations from the iron geochemistry of the Bay of Islands ophiolite

Abstract. 

"The deep ocean is generally considered to have changed from anoxic in the Precambrian to oxygenated by the Late Paleozoic (∼420–400 Ma) due to changes in atmospheric oxygen concentrations. When the transition occurred, that is, in the Early Paleozoic or not until the Late Paleozoic, is less well constrained. To address this, we measured Fe3+/ΣFe of volcanic rocks, sheeted dykes, gabbros, and ultramafic rocks from the Early Paleozoic (∼485 Ma) Bay of Islands (BOI) ophiolite as a proxy for hydrothermal alteration in the presence or absence of O2 derived from deep marine fluids. [...]".

 

Source: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 
Authors: Daniel A. Stolper et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GC010196

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Linkage of the late Cambrian microbe-metazoan transition (MMT) to shallow-marine oxygenation during the SPICE event

Abstract.

"Microbe-metazoan transitions (MMTs), representing a switch from microbe-mediated to metazoan-mediated carbonate production, have been linked to major changes in Earth-surface conditions. The ‘late Cambrian MMT’ (nomen novum), during which microbial reefs were replaced by maceriate and lithistid sponge reefs, coincided with a sharp rise in atmospheric O2 levels attributed to the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) at ~497–494 Ma. However, relationships between atmospheric oxygenation, marine redox conditions, and the MMT have not been thoroughly investigated to date. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Lei Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103798

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Covariation of Deep Antarctic Pacific Oxygenation and Atmospheric CO2 during the Last 770 kyr

Abstract. 

"We present new geochemical evidence of changes in oxygenation of the deep Antarctic Pacific over the last 770 kyr. Our data are derived from redox-sensitive metals and export production proxies extracted from gravity core ANT34/A2-10 at 4217 m water depth. Our results show that oxygen levels in the deep Antarctic Zone (AZ) varied in line with the release of deeply sequestered remineralized carbon to the atmosphere during glacial–interglacial (G–IG) cycles, with lower oxygen concentrations and more carbon storage during glacial periods. Subsequent reductions in the amount of carbon stored at depth were closely associated with improved ventilation during glacial terminations. [...]".

 

Source: Lithosphere

Authors: Zheng Tang et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/2022/1835176

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A transient oxygen increase in the Mesoproterozoic ocean at ∼1.44 Ga: Geochemical evidence from the Tieling Formation, North China Platform

Abstract.

"Oxygen availability is crucial for the evolution of eukaryotes in geological history, yet detailed Mesoproterozoic oceanic-atmospheric redox conditions remain enigmatic. In contrast to the generally accepted hypothesis of an anoxic mid-Proterozoic ocean and atmosphere, several transient oxygenation events may occur at the Earth’s surface during the Mesoproterozoic, especially for the period around 1.4 Ga. The North China Platform develops one of the most complete and continuous Mesoproterozoic stratigraphic successions globally, preserving key information on the redox state of the surface ocean–atmosphere system during the mid-Proterozoic. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Yang Yu et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2021.106527

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Major Early-Middle Devonian oceanic oxygenation linked to early land plant evolution detected using high-resolution U isotopes of marine limestones

Abstract.

"The middle Paleozoic (∼420-350 Myr) records a major increase in ocean-atmosphere oxygen levels; however, the timing and pattern of oxygenation are poorly constrained. Two well-dated North American locations in Nevada and Illinois were used to generate a high-resolution U-isotopic profile (U) spanning ∼70 Myr of the middle Paleozoic. Stratigraphic and geochemical data support the interpretation that the Nevada profile represents a near-primary record of global-ocean redox variations. First-order U trends indicate strongly reducing oceans during the late Silurian and Early Devonian, terminated by a major oxygenation event near the Emsian-Eifelian boundary (∼395 Ma). More oxic seawater conditions persisted for the next 30+ Myr, but were punctuated by multiple Myr-scale anoxic events during the Middle-Late Devonian and Early Mississippian that correlate with known global biotic crises, positive C excursions, and widespread organic-rich facies deposition. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Maya Elrick et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117410

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Methane oxidation in the waters of a humics-rich boreal lake stimulated by photosynthesis, nitrite, Fe(III) and humics

Abstract.

"Small boreal lakes are known to contribute significantly to global methane emissions. Lake Lovojärvi is a eutrophic lake in Southern Finland with bottom water methane concentrations up to 2 mM. However, the surface water concentration, and thus the diffusive emission potential, was low (< 0.5 μM). We studied the biogeochemical processes involved in methane removal by chemical profiling and through incubation experiments. δ13C-CH4 profiling of the water column revealed methane-oxidation hotspots just below the oxycline and within the anoxic water column. In incubation experiments involving the addition of light and/or oxygen, methane oxidation rates in the anoxic hypolimnion were enhanced 3-fold, suggesting a major role for photosynthetically fueled aerobic methane oxidation. A distinct peak in methane concentration was observed at the chlorophyll a maximum[...]"

Source: Biogeoscience
Authors: Sigrid van Grinsven et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2021-3

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Effects of Experimental Ocean Acidification on the Larval Morphology and Metabolism of a Temperate Sparid, Chrysoblephus laticeps

Abstract.

"Ocean acidification is predicted to have widespread impacts on marine species. The early life stages of fishes, being particularly sensitive to environmental deviations, represent a critical bottleneck to recruitment. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification (∆pH = −0.4) on the oxygen consumption and morphometry during the early ontogeny of a commercially important seabream, Chrysoblephus laticeps, up until flexion. Hatchlings appeared to be tolerant to hypercapnic conditions, exhibiting no difference in oxygen consumption or morphometry between treatments, although the yolk reserves were marginally reduced in the low-pH treatment. The preflexion stages appeared[...]"

 

Source: MDPI
Authors: Cuen Muller et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans2010002

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A transient swing to higher oxygen levels in the atmosphere and oceans at ~1.4 Ga

Abstract.

"The mid-Proterozoic (1.8–0.8 Ga) may have witnessed persistent and predominant anoxia at the Earth’s surface. However, recent studies suggest that there was a period around ~1.4 Ga where oxygen levels might have been transiently elevated, both in the atmosphere and oceans. In order to shed light on this debated topic, we analyzed rare earth elements plus Y (REY) and Cr isotope profiles of the carbonate rocks from the ~1.44-Gyr-old Tieling Formation consisting of the lower Daizhuangzi (DZZ) and upper Laohuding (LHD) Members at the Jixian section, North China. The DZZ samples are characterized by middle REE enriched, hump-shaped REY distribution patterns, while those of the LHD Member display[...]"

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Wei Wei et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2020.106058

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Sea urchin chronicles. The effect of oxygen super-saturation and marine polluted sediments from Bagnoli-Goroglio Bay on different life stages of the

sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

Abstract.

"In marinas and harbours, the accumulation of pollutants in sediments, combined with poor exchange of water with the open sea, poses a major environmental threat. The presence of photosynthetic organisms and the related oxygen production, however, may alleviate the negative effects of environmental contamination on heterotrophic organisms, enhancing their physiological defences. Furthermore, possible transgenerational buffer effects may increase the ability of natural populations to face environmental[...]"

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Antonia Chiarore et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104967

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