The Thermodynamic Controls on Sulfide Saturation in Silicate Melts with Application to Ocean Floor Basalts
"A thermodynamic model to calculate the sulfide content at sulfide saturation or SCSS of basaltic and intermediate composition silicate melts has been built from four independently measurable thermodynamic entities, namely the standard state Gibbs free energy of the saturation reaction, the “sulfide capacity”, and the activities of FeO in[...]"
Source: AGU- Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: Daniel R. Neuville et al.
Recent Developments in Oxygen Minimum Zones Biogeochemistry
New Research Topic: Recent Developments in Oxygen Minimum Zones Biogeochemistry
"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) play a key role in carbon, nitrogen and other elemental cycles, and directly impact climate dynamics by influencing air-sea fluxes of the potent greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Oxygen concentrations, catalyze specialized micro-organisms to regulate chemical fluxes, which are critical for ecosystem functioning. The degree of deoxygenation in the OMZs vary from hypoxic in the tropical Atlantic Ocean to functionally anoxic in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean.[...]"
Read articles here.
Effect of environmental history on the habitat-forming kelp Macrocystis pyrifera responses to ocean acidification and warming: a physiological and mol
"The capacity of marine organisms to adapt and/or acclimate to climate change might differ among distinct populations, depending on their local environmental history and phenotypic plasticity. Kelp forests create some of the most productive habitats in the world, but globally, many populations have been negatively impacted by multiple anthropogenic stressors. Here, we compare the physiological and molecular responses to ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) of two populations of the giant kelp[...]"
Source: Nature Scientific Reports
Authors: Pamela A. Fernández et al.
Constraint on net primary productivity of the global ocean by Argo oxygen measurements
"The biological transformation of dissolved inorganic carbon to organic carbon during photosynthesis in the ocean, marine primary production, is a fundamental driver of biogeochemical cycling, ocean health and Earth’s climate system. The organic matter created supports oceanic food webs, including fisheries, and is an essential control on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Marine primary productivity is sensitive to changes due to climate forcing, but observing the response at the global scale[...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Kenneth S. Johnson et al.
Transferring Complex Scientific Knowledge to Useable Products for Society: The Role of the Global Integrated Ocean Assessment and Challenges in the
Effective Delivery of Ocean Knowledge
"The ocean provides essential services to human wellbeing through climate regulation, provision of food, energy and livelihoods, protection of communities and nurturing of social and cultural values. Yet despite the ocean’s key role for all life, it is failing as a result of unsustainable human practices. The first global integrated assessment of the marine environment, produced by the United Nations under The Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects (the World Ocean Assessment), identified an overall decline in ocean health. The second assessment, launched in April 2021, although recognising some bright spots and improvements, stresses ongoing decline in the ocean[...]"
Authors: Karen Evans et al.
Oxygen loss in fjords, coastal areas, and open ocean systems
"Loss of oxygen and expansion of oxygen depleted environments have been witnessed in both coastal and open-ocean systems since the middle of the 20th century, and ocean modelling predicts continuing decease by the year 2100. Oxygen depletion occurs thus during the same time epoch as global warming. Increased knowledge on how and why oxygen varies in space and time shapes the biogeochemical and ecological structure of marine systems and will be needed for future predictions of marine productivity. In coastal systems deoxygenation is also linked to human activities that lead to increased loadings of nutrients and organic matter, and to regional effects of climate induced changes in wind and precipitation patterns[...]"
Source: BJERKNES CENTRE
Authors: Anne Gro Vea Salvanes et al.
Low oxygen levels can help to prevent the detrimental effect of acute warming on mitochondrial efficiency in fish
"Aerobic metabolism of aquatic ectotherms is highly sensitive to fluctuating climates. Many mitochondrial traits exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to acute variations in temperature and oxygen availability. These responses are critical for understanding the effects of environmental variations on aquatic ectotherms' performance. Using the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, we determined the effects of acute warming and deoxygenation in vitro on mitochondrial respiratory capacities and mitochondrial[...]"
Source: The Royal Society Publishing
Authors: Elisa Thoral et al.
More than 1000 rivers account for 80% of global riverine plastic emissions into the ocean
"Plastic waste increasingly accumulates in the marine environment, but data on the distribution and quantification of riverine sources required for development of effective mitigation are limited. Our model approach includes geographically distributed data on plastic waste, land use, wind, precipitation, and rivers and calculates the probability for plastic waste to reach a river and subsequently the ocean. This probabilistic approach highlights regions that are likely to emit plastic into the ocean. We calibrated our model using recent field observations[...]".
Source: Science Advances
Authors: LOURENS J. J. MEIJER et al.
The soundscape of the Anthropocene ocean
"Oceans have become substantially noisier since the Industrial Revolution. Shipping, resource exploration, and infrastructure development have increased the anthrophony (sounds generated by human activities), whereas the biophony (sounds of biological origin) has been reduced by hunting, fishing, and habitat degradation. Climate change is affecting geophony (abiotic, natural sounds). Existing evidence shows that anthrophony affects marine animals[...]".
Authors: Carlos M. Duarte et al.
System controls of coastal and open ocean oxygen depletion
"The epoch of the Anthropocene, a period during which human activity has been the dominant influence on climate and the environment, has witnessed a decline in oxygen concentrations and an expansion of oxygen-depleted environments in both coastal and open ocean systems since the middle of the 20th century. This paper provides a review of system-specific drivers of low oxygen in a range of case studies representing marine systems in the open ocean, on continental shelves, in enclosed seas[...]".
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Grant C. Pitcher