The ocean’s vital skin: Towards an integrated understanding of the sea surface microlayer
"Despite the huge extent of the ocean’s surface, until now relatively little attention has been paid to the sea surface microlayer (SML) as the ultimate interface where heat, momentum and mass exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere takes place. Via the SML, large-scale environmental changes in the ocean such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation and eutrophication potentially influence cloud formation, precipitation and the global radiation balance. Due to the deep connectivity between biological, chemical and physical processes, studies of the SML may reveal multiple sensitivities to global and regional changes. [...]"
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Anja Engel et al.
Impacts of ENSO on air-sea oxygen exchange: observations and mechanisms
"Models and observations of Atmospheric Potential Oxygen (APO ≃ O2 + 1.1*CO2) are used to investigate the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on air-sea O2 exchange. An atmospheric transport inversion of APO data from the Scripps flask network shows significant interannual variability in tropical APO fluxes that is positively correlated with the Niño3.4 index, indicating anomalous ocean outgassing of APO during El Niño. Hindcast simulations of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL) model show similar APO sensitivity to ENSO, differing from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) model, which shows an opposite APO response. [...]"
Source: Global Biochemical Cycles
Authors: Yassir A. Eddebbar et al.