News

Ocean euxinia and climate change "double whammy" drove the Late Ordovician mass extinction

Abstract.

"The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME, ca. 445 Ma) was the first of the "Big Five" Phanerozoic extinction events and comprised two extinction pulses. Proposed kill mechanisms include glacially induced global cooling and the expansion of water-column anoxia and/or euxinia (sulfidic conditions), but no general consensus has been reached with regard to the precise role of these mechanisms. [...]"

Source: Geology
Authors: Caineng Zou et al.
DOI: 10.1130/G40121.1

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Local oceanographic variability influences the performance of juvenile abalone under climate change

Abstract.

"Climate change is causing warming, deoxygenation, and acidification of the global ocean. However, manifestation of climate change may vary at local scales due to oceanographic conditions. Variation in stressors, such as high temperature and low oxygen, at local scales may lead to variable biological responses and spatial refuges from climate impacts. We conducted outplant experiments at two locations separated by ~2.5 km and two sites at each location separated by ~200 m in the nearshore of Isla Natividad, Mexico to assess how local ocean conditions (warming and hypoxia) may affect juvenile abalone performance. [...]"

Source: Scientific Reports
Authors: C.A. Boch
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-23746-z

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Dimethylsulfide (DMS) production in polar oceans may be resilient to ocean acidification

Abstract.

"Emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the polar oceans play a key role in atmospheric processes and climate. Therefore, it is important we increase our understanding of how DMS production in these regions may respond to environmental change. The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). However, our understanding of the polar DMS response is limited to two studies conducted in Arctic waters, where in both cases DMS concentrations decreased with increasing acidity. [...]"

Source: Biogeosciences (under Review)
Authors: Frances E. Hopkins et al.
DOI: 10.5194/bg-2018-55

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Ocean science research is key for a sustainable future

"Human activity has already affected all parts of the ocean, with pollution increasing and fish-stocks plummeting. The UN’s recent announcement of a Decade of Ocean Science provides a glimmer of hope, but scientists will need to work closely with decision-makers and society at large to get the ocean back on track. [...]"

Source: Martin Visbeck
Author: Nature Communications
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03158-3

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Earth’s Oceans Suffocate as Climate Change and Nutrient Loading Create “Dead Zones”

"A new research study from a Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE) team of scientists reveals that the number of low- and zero oxygen sites in the world’s oceans have increased dramatically in the past 50 years. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations created the GO2NE working group to provide a multidisciplinary, global view of deoxygenation, with the end goal of advising policymakers on preserving marine resources by countering low oxygen. [...]"

Source: environmental monitor
Author: Karla Lant

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Effects of ocean acidification and hydrodynamic conditions on carbon metabolism and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes in seagrass populations

Abstract.

"Global change has been acknowledged as one of the main threats to the biosphere and its provision of ecosystem services, especially in marine ecosystems. Seagrasses play a critical ecological role in coastal ecosystems, but their responses to ocean acidification (OA) and climate change are not well understood. There have been previous studies focused on the effects of OA, but the outcome of interactions with co-factors predicted to alter during climate change still needs to be addressed. [...]"

Source: PLoS ONE
Authors: Luis G. Egea et al.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192402

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Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

Abstract.

"The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean–atmosphere system from a C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. [...]"

Source: Climate of the Past
Authors: Joost Frieling et al.
DOI: 10.5194/cp-14-39-2018

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Oceans suffocating as huge dead zones quadruple since 1950, scientists warn

Areas starved of oxygen in open ocean and by coasts have soared in recent decades, risking dire consequences for marine life and humanity

 

"Ocean dead zones with zero oxygen have quadrupled in size since 1950, scientists have warned, while the number of very low oxygen sites near coasts have multiplied tenfold. Most sea creatures cannot survive in these zones and current trends would lead to mass extinction in the long run, risking dire consequences for the hundreds of millions of people who depend on the sea. [...]"

Source: The Guardian

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Declining oxygen in the global ocean and coastal waters

Abstract.

"Oxygen is fundamental to life. Not only is it essential for the survival of individual animals, but it regulates global cycles of major nutrients and carbon. The oxygen content of the open ocean and coastal waters has been declining for at least the past half-century, largely because of human activities that have increased global temperatures and nutrients discharged to coastal waters. [...]"

Source: Science
Authors: Denise Breitburg et al.
DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7240

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Multifarious anchovy and sardine regimes in the Humboldt Current System during the last 150 years

Abstract.

"The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, although it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20th century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean climate variability. [...]"

Source: Global Change Biology
Authors: Renato Salvatteci et al.
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13991

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