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Global declines in coral reef calcium carbonate production under ocean acidification and warming

Abstract.

"Ocean warming and acidification threaten the future growth of coral reefs. This is because the calcifying coral reef taxa that construct the calcium carbonate frameworks and cement the reef together are highly sensitive to ocean warming and acidification. However, the global-scale effects of ocean warming and acidification on rates of coral reef net carbonate production remain poorly constrained despite a wealth of studies assessing their effects on the calcification of individual organisms[...]"

 

Source: PNAS- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Authors: Christopher E. Cornwall et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015265118

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The poleward enhanced Arctic Ocean cooling machine in a warming climate

Abstract.

"As a cooling machine of the Arctic Ocean, the Barents Sea releases most of the incoming ocean heat originating from the North Atlantic. The related air-sea heat exchange plays a crucial role in both regulating the climate and determining the deep circulation in the Arctic Ocean and beyond. It was reported that the cooling efficiency of this cooling machine has decreased significantly. In this study, we find that the overall cooling efficiency did not really drop: When the cooling efficiency decreased in the southern Barents Sea[...]"

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Qi Shu et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23321-7

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Rain-fed streams dilute inorganic nutrients but subsidise organic-matter-associated nutrients in coastal waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean

Abstract.

"In coastal regions, rivers and streams may be important sources of nutrients limiting to primary production in marine waters; however, sampling is still rarely conducted across the land-to-ocean aquatic continuum, precluding conclusions from being drawn about connectivity between freshwater and marine systems. Here we use a more-than-4-year dataset (2014–2018) of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, iron) and dissolved organic carbon spanning streams draining coastal watersheds and nearshore marine surface waters along the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada, at the heart of the North Pacific coastal temperate[...]"

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Kyra A. St. Pierre et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-3029-2021

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Trends and variability of ocean waves under RCP8.5 emission scenario in the Mediterranean Sea

Abstract.

"Wind-generated ocean waves are key inputs for several studies and applications, both near the coast (coastal vulnerability assessment, coastal structures design, harbor operativity) and off-shore (a.o. oil and gas production, ship routes, and navigation safety). As such, the evaluation of trends in future wave climate is fundamental for the development of efficient policies in the framework of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. This study focuses[...]"

 

Source: Ocean Dynamics
Authors: Francesco De Leo et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-020-01419-8

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Observed Seasonal and Interannual Controls on Coastal Oxygen and Dead Zones in the Indian Ocean

Abstract.

"A major concern is that global de-oxygenation will expand Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and favor coastal dead zones (DZs) where already low oxygen levels threaten ecosystems and adjacent coastal economies. The northern Indian ocean is home to both intense OMZs and DZs, and is surrounded by many kilometers of biodiverse and commercially valuable coastline. Exchanges between OMZs and shelf waters that contribute to coastal DZs are subject to the strong monsoonal seasonal cycle[...]"

 

Source: EGU General Assambly
Authors: Jenna Pearson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-1421

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Can seafloor voltage cables be used to study large-scale circulation? An investigation in the Pacific Ocean

Abstract.

"Marine electromagnetic (EM) signals largely depend on three factors: flow velocity, Earth's main magnetic field, and seawater's electrical conductivity (which depends on the local temperature and salinity). Because of this, there has been recent interest in using marine EM signals to monitor and study ocean circulation. Our study utilizes voltage data from retired seafloor telecommunication cables in the Pacific Ocean to examine whether such cables could be used to monitor circulation velocity or transport on large oceanic scales. We process the cable data to isolate the seasonal and monthly variations and then evaluate the correlation between the processed data and numerical predictions of the electric field[...]"

 

Source: EGU-European Geosciences Union
Authors: Jakub Velímský et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/os-17-383-2021

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Intrinsic oceanic decadal variability of upper-ocean heat content

Abstract.

"Atmosphere and ocean are coupled via air–sea interactions. The atmospheric conditions fuel the ocean circulation and its variability, but the extent to which ocean processes can affect the atmosphere at decadal time scales remains unclear. In particular, such low-frequency variability is difficult to extract from the short observational record, meaning that climate models are the primary tools deployed to resolve this question. Here, we assess how the ocean’s intrinsic variability leads to patterns of upper-ocean heat content [...]"

 

Source: AMS- American Meteorological Society
Authors: Navid C. Constantinou et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0962.1

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Effect of Resolving Ocean Eddies on the Transient Response of Global Mean Surface Temperature to Abrupt 4xCO2 Forcing

Abstract.

"The magnitude of global mean surface temperature (GMST) response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is affected by the efficiency of ocean heat uptake, which in turn can be affected by oceanic mesoscale eddies. Using the Max Planck Institute ‐ Earth System Model (MPI‐ESM1.2), we find that resolving eddies[...]"

 

Source: Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: D. A. Putrasahan et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092049


A global viral oceanography database (gVOD)

Abstract.

"Virioplankton are a key component of the marine biosphere in maintaining diversity of microorganisms and stabilizing ecosystems. They also contribute greatly to nutrient cycles/cycling by releasing organic matter after lysis of hosts. In this study, we constructed the first global viral oceanography database (gVOD) by collecting 10 931 viral abundance (VA) data and 727 viral production (VP) data, along with host and relevant oceanographic parameters when available. Most VA data were obtained in the North Atlantic (32 %) and North Pacific (29 %) oceans, while the southeast Pacific[...]"

 

Source: Earth System Science Data 
Authors: Le Xie et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-13-1251-2021

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Photosensitized formation of sulfate and volatile sulfur gases from dissolved organic sulfur: Roles of pH, dissolved oxygen, and salinity

Abstract.

"The photodegradation of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) is a potential source of aqueous sulfate and its chemical precursors in surface water. However, the photochemical fate of DOS and factors that control its fate still remain unclear. Herein, we employed a DOS model featuring a photosensitizer (humic acids, HA) to investigate the photochemical degradation pathways of DOS in various natural water sources, from which we observed the substantial photosensitized formation of sulfate, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), carbonyl [...]"

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Jian-Long Li et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147449

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