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Biotic induction and microbial ecological dynamics of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

Abstract. 

"Understanding the causal mechanisms of past marine deoxygenation is critical to predicting the long-term Earth systems response to climate change. However, the processes and events preceding widespread carbon burial coincident with oceanic anoxic events remain poorly constrained. Here, we report a comprehensive biomarker inventory enveloping Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 that captures microbial communities spanning epipelagic to benthic environments in the southern proto-North Atlantic Ocean. We identify an abrupt, sustained increase in primary productivity that predates Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 by ∼220 ± 4 thousand years, well before other geochemical proxies register biogeochemical perturbations. [...]". 

 

Source: Communications Earth & Environment 
Authors: Gregory T. Connock et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00466-x 

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Trace elements V, Ni, Mo and U: A geochemical tool to quantify dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxygen minimum zone of the north-eastern Pacific

Abstract.

"Deoxygenation of the water column in the oceans and in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) has become relevant due to its connection with global climate change. The variability of the OMZ has been inferred by in situ measurements for the last 70 years and qualitatively assessed through the monitoring of trace elements and the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) of organic matter on several time scales. The V, Ni, Mo and U concentrations in surface sediments and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water column of La Paz Bay and the Mazatlán margin were used to propose an exponential regression model. This model will allow the inference of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the sedimentary records from the Alfonso Basin in La Paz Bay and in the Mazatlán margin over the last 250 years. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Alberto Sánchez et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2022.103732

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Widespread oxyregulation in tropical corals under hypoxia

Abstract. 

"Hypoxia (low oxygen stress) is increasingly reported on coral reefs, caused by ocean deoxygenation linked to coastal nutrient pollution and ocean warming. While the ability to regulate respiration is a key driver of hypoxia tolerance in many other aquatic taxa, corals' oxyregulatory capabilities remain virtually unexplored. Here, we examine O2-consumption patterns across 17 coral species under declining O2partial pressure (pO2). All corals showed ability to oxyregulate, but total positive regulation (Tpos) varied between species, ranging from 0.41 (Pocillopora damicornis) to 2.42 (P. acuta). [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: David J. Hughes et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113722

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Sensitivity of Global Ocean Deoxygenation to Vertical and Isopycnal Mixing in an Ocean Biogeochemistry Model

Abstract. 

"Large-scale loss of oxygen under global warming is termed “ocean deoxygenation” and is caused by the imbalance between physical supply and biological consumption of oxygen in the ocean interior. Significant progress has been made in the theoretical understanding of ocean deoxygenation; however, many questions remain unresolved. The oxygen change in the tropical thermocline is poorly understood, with diverging projections among different models. Physical oxygen supply is controlled by a suite of processes that transport oxygen-rich surface waters into the interior ocean, which is expected to weaken due to increasing stratification under global warming. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library

Authors: Taka Ito et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GB007151

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Shallow ocean oxygen decline during the end-Triassic mass extinction

Abstract.

"The end-Triassic mass extinction (ETME) was associated with intensified deep-water anoxia in epicontinental seas and mid-depth waters, yet the absolute oxygenation state in the shallow ocean is uncharacterized. Here we report carbonate-associated iodine data from the peritidal Mount Sparagio section (Southern Italy) that documents the ETME (~ 200 Ma) in the western Tethys. We find a sharp drop in carbonate I/(Ca + Mg) ratios across the extinction horizon and persisting into the Early Jurassic. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Tianchen He et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103770

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Biogeochemical feedbacks may amplify ongoing and future ocean deoxygenation: a case study from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

Abstract.

"A new box model is employed to simulate the oxygen-dependent cycling of nutrients in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Model results and data for the present state of the OMZ indicate that dissolved iron is the limiting nutrient for primary production and is provided by the release of dissolved ferrous iron from shelf and slope sediments. Most of the removal of reactive nitrogen occurs by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium where ammonium is delivered by aerobic organic nitrogen degradation. Model experiments simulating the effects of ocean deoxygenation and warming show that the productivity of the Peruvian OMZ will increase due to the enhanced release of dissolved iron from shelf and slope sediments. A positive feedback loop rooted in the oxygen-dependent benthic iron release amplifies, both, the productivity rise and oxygen decline in ambient bottom waters. [...]". 

 

Source: Biogeochemistry

Authors: Klaus Wallmann et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-022-00908-w 

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Adaptive strategies of sponges to deoxygenated oceans

Abstract.

"Ocean deoxygenation is one of the major consequences of climate change. In coastal waters, this process can be exacerbated by eutrophication, which is contributing to an alarming increase in the so-called ‘dead zones’ globally. Despite its severity, the effect of reduced dissolved oxygen has only been studied for a very limited number of organisms, compared to other climate change impacts such as ocean acidification and warming. Here, we experimentally assessed the response of sponges to moderate[...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library 
Authors: Valerio Micaroni et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16013

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Rapid ecosystem-scale consequences of acute deoxygenation on a Caribbean coral reef

Abstract.

"Loss of oxygen in the global ocean is accelerating due to climate change and eutrophication, but how acute deoxygenation events affect tropical marine ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we integrate analyses of coral reef benthic communities with microbial community sequencing to show how a deoxygenation event rapidly altered benthic community composition and microbial assemblages in a shallow tropical reef ecosystem. Conditions associated with the event precipitated coral bleaching and mass mortality, causing a 50% loss of live coral and a shift in the benthic community that persisted a year later. Conversely, the unique taxonomic and functional profile of hypoxia-associated microbes rapidly reverted to a normoxic assemblage[...]".

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Maggie D. Johnson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24777-3

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A committed fourfold increase in ocean oxygen loss

Abstract.

"Less than a quarter of ocean deoxygenation that will ultimately be caused by historical CO2 emissions is already realized, according to millennial-scale model simulations that assume zero CO2 emissions from year 2021 onwards. About 80% of the committed oxygen loss occurs below 2000 m depth, where a more sluggish overturning circulation will increase water residence times and accumulation of respiratory oxygen demand. According to the model results, the deep ocean will thereby lose more than 10% of its pre-industrial oxygen content even if CO2 emissions and thus global warming[...]".

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Andreas Oschlies
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22584-4 

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Shallow marine ecosystem collapse and recovery during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

Abstract.

"The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the most well-studied transient hyperthermal event in Earth history, is characterized by prominent and dynamic changes in global marine ecosystems. Understanding such biotic responses provides valuable insights into future scenarios in the face of anthropogenic warming. However, evidence of the PETM biotic responses is largely biased towards deep-sea records, whereas shallow-marine evidence remains scarce and elusive. Here we investigate a shallow-marine microfaunal record from Maryland, eastern United States, to comprehensively document the shallow-marine biotic response to the PETM. We applied birth-death modeling to estimate the local diversity dynamics[...]"

 

Source: Elsevier
Authors: Skye Yunshu Tian  et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103649

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