Quantifying the Contribution of Ocean Mesoscale Eddies to Low Oxygen Extreme Events
"Ocean mesoscale eddies have been identified as drivers of localized extremely low dissolved oxygen concentration ([O2]) conditions in the subsurface. We employ a global physical-biogeochemical ocean model at eddy-permitting resolution to conduct a census of open-ocean eddies near Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems adjacent to tropical Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs). We track cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies with a surface signature over the period 1992–2018 and isolate their subsurface oxygen characteristics. We identify strongly deoxygenating eddies and quantify their contribution to low [O2] extreme events. [...]".
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Jamie Atkins et al.
Constraints on Early Paleozoic deep-ocean oxygen concentrations from the iron geochemistry of the Bay of Islands ophiolite
"The deep ocean is generally considered to have changed from anoxic in the Precambrian to oxygenated by the Late Paleozoic (∼420–400 Ma) due to changes in atmospheric oxygen concentrations. When the transition occurred, that is, in the Early Paleozoic or not until the Late Paleozoic, is less well constrained. To address this, we measured Fe3+/ΣFe of volcanic rocks, sheeted dykes, gabbros, and ultramafic rocks from the Early Paleozoic (∼485 Ma) Bay of Islands (BOI) ophiolite as a proxy for hydrothermal alteration in the presence or absence of O2 derived from deep marine fluids. [...]".
Source: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Authors: Daniel A. Stolper et al.
On anomalously high sub-surface dissolved oxygen in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean
"The Southern Ocean (SO) plays a critical role in global ocean productivity and carbon cycling. Bio-Argo floats deployed in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean provides new insights into the biogeochemical processes. Here we report significantly higher dissolved oxygen (DO) (~ 310 μmol/kg) in summer of 2014–2015 for one float (F1) and winter of 2014 in other float (F2) at sub-surface layer in the subantarctic region of the SO. The summer DO peak in F1 was 10% higher than those during the summer of succeeding year, while the winter DO peak in F2 was 20% higher than those during the winter of succeeding year. [...]".
Source: Journal of Oceanography
Authors: Prince Prakash et al.
Trace elements V, Ni, Mo and U: A geochemical tool to quantify dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxygen minimum zone of the north-eastern Pacific
"Deoxygenation of the water column in the oceans and in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) has become relevant due to its connection with global climate change. The variability of the OMZ has been inferred by in situ measurements for the last 70 years and qualitatively assessed through the monitoring of trace elements and the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) of organic matter on several time scales. The V, Ni, Mo and U concentrations in surface sediments and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water column of La Paz Bay and the Mazatlán margin were used to propose an exponential regression model. This model will allow the inference of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the sedimentary records from the Alfonso Basin in La Paz Bay and in the Mazatlán margin over the last 250 years. [...]".
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Alberto Sánchez et al.
Coupled changes in pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen impact the physiology and ecology of herbivorous kelp forest grazers
"Understanding species’ responses to upwelling may be especially important in light of ongoing environmental change. Upwelling frequency and intensity are expected to increase in the future, while ocean acidification and deoxygenation are expected to decrease the pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) of upwelled waters. However, the acute effects of a single upwelling event and the integrated effects of multiple upwelling events on marine organisms are poorly understood. Here, we use in situ measurements of pH, temperature, and DO to characterize the covariance of environmental conditions within upwelling-dominated kelp forest ecosystems. We then test the effects of acute (0–3 days) and chronic (1–3 months) upwelling on the performance of two species of kelp forest grazers, the echinoderm, Mesocentrotus franciscanus, and the gastropod, Promartynia pulligo. We exposed organisms to static conditions in a regression design to determine the shape of the relationship between upwelling and performance and provide insights into the potential effects in a variable environment. We found that respiration, grazing, growth, and net calcification decline linearly with increasing upwelling intensity for M. francicanus over both acute and chronic timescales. [...]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Emily M. Donham et al.
Oxygen gradients shape the unique structure of picoeukaryotic communities in the Bay of Bengal
"Picoeukaryotic communities respond rapidly to global climate change and play an important role in marine biological food webs and ecosystems. The formation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) is facilitated by the stratification of seawater and higher primary production in the surface layer, and the marine picoeukaryotic community this low-oxygen environment is topic of interest. To better understand the picoeukaryotic community assembly mechanisms in an OMZ, we collected samples from the Bay of Bengal (BOB) in October and November 2020 and used 18S rDNA to study the picoeukaryotic communities and their community assembly mechanisms that they are controlled by in deep-sea and hypoxic zones. The results show that deterministic and stochastic processes combine to shape picoeukaryotic communities in the BOB. [...]".
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Zhuo Chen et al.
Sensitivity of asymmetric oxygen minimum zones to mixing intensity and stoichiometry in the tropical Pacific using a basin-scale model
"The tropical Pacific Ocean holds the two largest oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world's oceans, showing a prominent hemispheric asymmetry, with a much stronger and broader OMZ north of the Equator. However, many models have difficulties in reproducing the observed asymmetric OMZs in the tropical Pacific. Here, we apply a fully coupled basin-scale model to evaluate the impacts of stoichiometry and the intensity of vertical mixing on the dynamics of OMZs in the tropical Pacific. We first utilize observational data of dissolved oxygen (DO) to calibrate and validate the basin-scale model. Our model experiments demonstrate that enhanced vertical mixing combined with a reduced O:C utilization ratio can significantly improve our model capability of reproducing the asymmetric OMZs. Our study shows that DO concentration is more sensitive to biological processes over 200–400 m but to physical processes below 400 m. [...]".
Source: Geoscientific Model Development
Authors: Kai Wang et al.
Calculating dissolved marine oxygen values based on an enhanced Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index
"Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) trap greenhouse gases, reduce livable habitats, a critical factor for these changes is the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO). The frequently used tool to reconstruct DO values, the Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index (BFOI), showed major shortcomings and lacks effectiveness. Therefore, we enhanced the BFOI and introduce enhanced BFOI (EBFOI) formulas by using all available data benthic foraminifers provide, calculating the whole livable habitat of benthic foraminifers, including bottom water oxygenation (BWO) and pore water oxygenation (PWO). Further, we introduce for the first time a transfer function to convert EBFOI vales directly into DO values, increasing efficiency by up to 38%. [...]".
Source: Nature Scientific Reports
Authors: Matthias Kranner et al.
GO-SHIP Easy Ocean: Gridded ship-based hydrographic section of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen
"Despite technological advances over the last several decades, ship-based hydrography remains the only method for obtaining high-quality, high spatial and vertical resolution measurements of physical, chemical, and biological parameters over the full water column essential for physical, chemical, and biological oceanography and climate science. The Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) coordinates a network of globally sustained hydrographic sections. These data provide a unique data set that spans four decades, comprised of more than 40 cross-ocean transects. The section data are, however, difficult to use owing to inhomogeneous format. The purpose of this new temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen data product is to combine, reformat and grid these data measured by Conductivity-Temperature-Depth-Oxygen (CTDO) profilers in order to facilitate their use by a wider audience. [...]".
Source: Nature Scientific Data
Authors: Katsuro Katsumata et al.
Responses of Horizontally Expanding Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones to Climate Change Based on Observations
"Due to climate change, global oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO) has been decreasing, and oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have been expanding. Here, we estimate the annual global and regional OMZ areas using geostatistical regression combined with Monte Carlo. From 1960 to 2019, annual global OMZ20 (DO < 20 μmol/kg) and OMZ60 (DO < 60 μmol/kg) areas cover 5%–14% and 15%–32% of the global ocean, respectively. The global and most regional OMZ areas after the late 2000s were all significantly larger than those in previous years. [...]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Yuntao Zhou et al.