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Evolution of (Bio-)Geochemical Processes and Diagenetic Alteration of Sediments Along the Tectonic Migration of Ocean Floor in the Shikoku Basin off J

Abstract.

"Biogeochemical processes in subseafloor sediments are closely coupled to global element cycles. To improve the understanding of changes in biogeochemical conditions on geological timescales, we investigate sediment cores from a 1,180 m deep hole in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan (Site C0023) drilled during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 370. During its tectonic migration from the Shikoku Basin to the Nankai Trough over the past 15 Ma, Site C0023 has experienced significant changes in[...]"

 

Source: AGU- Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: Male Köster et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GC009585

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Oxygen Seasonality, Utilization Rate, and Impacts of Vertical Mixing in the Eighteen Degree Water Region of the Sargasso Sea as Observed by Profiling

Abstract.

"Seasonal oxygen structure and utilization in the Sargasso Sea are characterized using nine profiling floats with oxygen 2021 sensors (years 2005–2008), deployed in an Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) experiment (CLIMODE). During autumn-winter when the mixed layer is deepening, oxygen increases from the surface to the base of the EDW at 400 m. During spring-summer, oxygen decreases except between the seasonal pycnocline and compensation depth, creating the seasonal shallow oxygen maximum layer (SOMax) with oxygen production[...]"

 

Source: Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: Samuel J. Billheimer et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GB006824

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Vertical distribution of planktic foraminifera through an oxygen minimum zone: how assemblages and test morphology reflect oxygen concentrations

Abstract.

"Oxygen-depleted regions of the global ocean are rapidly expanding, with important implications for global biogeochemical cycles. However, our ability to make projections about the future of oxygen in the ocean is limited by a lack of empirical data with which to test and constrain the behavior of global climatic and oceanographic models. We use depth-stratified plankton tows to demonstrate that some species of planktic foraminifera are adapted to life in the heart of the pelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). In particular, we identify two species, Globorotaloides hexagonus and Hastigerina parapelagica, living within the eastern tropical North Pacific OMZ. The tests of the former are preserved in marine sediments and could be used to trace the extent and intensity of low-oxygen pelagic habitats in the fossil record. Additional morphometric analyses of G. hexagonus show that tests found in the lowest oxygen[...]"

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Catherine V. Davis et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-977-2021

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The rise of angiosperms strengthened fire feedbacks and improved the regulation of atmospheric oxygen

Abstract.

"The source of oxygen to Earth’s atmosphere is organic carbon burial, whilst the main sink is oxidative weathering of fossil carbon. However, this sink is to insensitive to counteract oxygen rising above its current level of about 21%. Biogeochemical models suggest that wildfires provide an additional regulatory feedback mechanism. However, none have considered how the evolution of different plant groups through time have interacted with this feedback. The Cretaceous Period[...]"

 

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Claire M. Belcher et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20772-2

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The role of environmental factors in the long-term evolution of the marine biological pump

Absract.

"The biological pump—the transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the ocean interior and marine sediments as organic carbon—plays a critical role in regulating the long-term carbon cycle, atmospheric composition and climate. Despite its centrality in the Earth system, the response of the biological pump to biotic innovation and climatic fluctuations through most stages of Earth’s history has been largely conjectural. Here we use a mechanistic model of the biological carbon pump to revisit the factors controlling[...]"

 

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Mojtaba Fakhraee et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-00660-6

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Increased carbon capture by a silicate-treated forested watershed affected by acid deposition

Abstract.

"Meeting internationally agreed-upon climate targets requires carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategies coupled with an urgent phase-down of fossil fuel emissions. However, the efficacy and wider impacts of CDR are poorly understood. Enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a land-based CDR strategy requiring large-scale field trials. Here we show that a low 3.44 t ha−1 wollastonite treatment in an 11.8 ha acid-rain-impacted forested watershed in New Hampshire, USA, led to cumulative carbon capture by carbonic acid weathering of 0.025–0.13 t CO2 ha−1 over 15 years. Despite a 0.8–2.4 t CO2 ha−1 logistical carbon penalty from mining, grinding, transportation[...]"

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Lyla L. Taylor et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-169-2021

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Simulating shrubs and their energy and carbon dioxide fluxes in Canada's Low Arctic with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme Including biogeochemical Cyc

Abstract.

"The Arctic is warming more rapidly than other regions of the world leading to ecosystem change including shifts in vegetation communities, permafrost degradation and alteration of tundra surface-atmosphere energy and carbon (C) fluxes, among others. However, year-round C and energy flux measurements at high-latitude sites remain rare. This poses a challenge for evaluating the impacts of climate change on Arctic tundra ecosystems and for developing and evaluating process-based models, which may be used to predict regional and global energy and C feedbacks to the climate system. Our study used 14 years of seasonal eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), water and energy fluxes and winter soil chamber CO2 flux measurements at a dwarf-shrub tundra site underlain by continuous permafrost in Canada's Southern Arctic ecozone to evaluate the incorporation[...]"

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Gesa Meyer et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2020-458


The influence of plastic pollution and ocean change on detrital decomposition

Abstract.

"Plastic pollution and ocean change have mostly been assessed separately, missing potential interactions that either enhance or reduce future impacts on ecosystem processes. Here, we used manipulative experiments with outdoor mesocosms to test hypotheses about the interactive effects of plastic pollution, ocean warming and acidification on macrophyte detrital decomposition. These experiments focused on detritus from kelp, Ecklonia radiata, and eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and included crossed treatments of (i) no, low and high plastic pollution, (ii) current/future ocean temperatures, and (iii) ambient/future ocean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). High levels of plastic pollution significantly reduced[...]"

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Sebastian G. Litchfield et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111354

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Acceleration of ocean warming, salinification, deoxygenation and acidification in the surface subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

Abstract.

"Ocean chemical and physical conditions are changing. Here we show decadal variability and recent acceleration of surface warming, salinification, deoxygenation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and acidification in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site; 1980s to present). Surface temperatures and salinity exhibited interdecadal variability, increased by ~0.85 °C (with recent warming of 1.2 °C) and 0.12, respectively, while dissolved oxygen levels decreased by ~8% (~2% per decade).[...]"

 

Source: Nature - Communications Earth and Environment
Authors: Nicholas Robert Bates et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-020-00030-5

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Rapid transfer of oxygen to the deep ocean mediated by bubbles

Abstract.

"The concentration of oxygen exerts major controls on life in the ocean, and its distribution in the ocean and atmosphere carries information about biological productivity, transports of mass and heat, ocean deoxygenation and global carbon sinks. Our understanding of processes underlying oxygen distributions, their key features and variability is often lacking. Here we investigate the magnitude, variability and uncertainty of the air–sea flux of oxygen, carbon dioxide and atmospheric potential oxygen over an annual cycle in the Labrador Sea. We demonstrate that two-thirds of the annual oxygen uptake occurs over only 40 days in winter and is associated with a bubble-mediated component[...]"

 

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: D. Atamanchuk et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0532-2

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