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Temperature and oxygen supply shape the demersal community in a tropical Oxygen Minimum Zone

Abstract. 

"The organisms that inhabit Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) have specialized adaptations that allow them to survive within a very narrow range of environmental conditions. Consequently, even small environmental perturbations can result in local species distribution shifts that alter ecosystem trophodynamics. Here, we examined the effect of changing sea water temperatures and oxygen levels on the physiological performance and metabolic traits of the species forming marine demersal communities along the OMZ margins in the Costa Rican Pacific. The strong temperature and oxygen gradients along this OMZ margin provide a “natural experiment” to explore the effects of warming and hypoxia on marine demersal communities. [...]".

 

Source: Environmental Biology of Fishes

Authors: Tayler M. Clarke et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-022-01256-2

Read the full article here.


Mid-Holocene intensification of the oxygen minimum zone in the northeastern Arabian Sea

Abstract. 

"The Arabian Sea is characterized by a strong Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) bearing sub-oxic conditions at the intermediate water depth. We analyzed a sediment core near the upper margin of OMZ (174 m water depth) from offshore Saurashtra, northeastern (NE) Arabian Sea to reconstruct multi-proxy biogeochemical response in the area during the Early-Middle Holocene (∼10–4 ka before present). The results indicate lower foraminiferal productivity (both benthic and planktic) and weak sub-surface denitrification causing mild OMZ conditions at the study site during the early Holocene (∼10–8 ka). Subsequently, an increased foraminiferal productivity and sub-surface (both the water column and sediment) denitrification in the area led to intensified OMZ conditions during the mid-Holocene (after ∼8 ka). [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Syed Azharuddin et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2022.105094

Read the full article here.


Uranium isotope evidence for extensive shallow water anoxia in the early Tonian oceans

Abstract. 

"The Earth's redox evolution has been commonly assumed to have played a key role in shaping the evolutionary history of the biosphere. However, whether and how shifts in marine redox conditions are linked to key biotic events – foremost the rise of animals and the ecological expansion of eukaryotic algae in the late Proterozoic oceans – remains heavily debated. Our current picture of global marine redox evolution during this critical interval is incomplete. This is particularly the case for the Tonian Period (∼1.0 to ∼0.717 Ga), when animals may have diverged and when eukaryotic algae began their rise in ecological importance. Here, we present new uranium isotope (U) measurements from Tonian carbonates to fill this outstanding gap. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 

Authors: Feifei Zhang et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117437

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Placing North Pacific paleo-oxygenation records on a common scale using multivariate analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages

Abstract. 

"Dysoxic events are well-studied in Pleistocene and Holocene marine sediment records from the North Pacific using faunal, sedimentological, and geochemical paleo-oxygenation proxies. However, differences in proxy sensitivity and local conditions make it difficult to quantify the relative severity of dysoxia across the North Pacific. Here, we use multivariate analyses of taxonomically standardized benthic foraminiferal assemblages to quantitatively compare the severity and duration of dysoxic events at four intermediate depth sites within oxygen minimum zones in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA), Santa Barbara Basin, and Baja California Sur. Unlike previous faunal dissolved oxygen indices, the metric developed here incorporates the total faunal assemblage and is better correlated with co-registered geochemical proxies. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Sharon Sharon et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107412

Read the full article here.


Coupled changes in pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen impact the physiology and ecology of herbivorous kelp forest grazers

Abstract. 

"Understanding species’ responses to upwelling may be especially important in light of ongoing environmental change. Upwelling frequency and intensity are expected to increase in the future, while ocean acidification and deoxygenation are expected to decrease the pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) of upwelled waters. However, the acute effects of a single upwelling event and the integrated effects of multiple upwelling events on marine organisms are poorly understood. Here, we use in situ measurements of pH, temperature, and DO to characterize the covariance of environmental conditions within upwelling-dominated kelp forest ecosystems. We then test the effects of acute (0–3 days) and chronic (1–3 months) upwelling on the performance of two species of kelp forest grazers, the echinoderm, Mesocentrotus franciscanus, and the gastropod, Promartynia pulligo. We exposed organisms to static conditions in a regression design to determine the shape of the relationship between upwelling and performance and provide insights into the potential effects in a variable environment. We found that respiration, grazing, growth, and net calcification decline linearly with increasing upwelling intensity for Mfrancicanus over both acute and chronic timescales. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library

Authors: Emily M. Donham et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16125

Read the full article here.


Extensive marine anoxia in the European epicontinental sea during the end-Triassic mass extinction

Abstract. 

"Warming-induced marine anoxia has been hypothesized as an environmental stressor for the end-Triassic mass extinction (ETME), but links between the spread of marine anoxia and the two phases of extinction are poorly constrained. Here, we report iron speciation and trace metal data from the Bristol Channel Basin and Larne Basin of the NW European epicontinental sea (EES), spanning the Triassic–Jurassic (T–J) transition (~ 202–200 Ma). Results show frequent development of anoxic-ferruginous conditions, interspersed with ephemeral euxinic episodes in the Bristol Channel Basin during the latest Rhaetian, whereas the contemporaneous Larne Basin remained largely oxygenated, suggesting heterogeneous redox conditions between basins. Subsequently, more persistent euxinic conditions prevailed across the T–J boundary in both basins, coinciding precisely with the second phase of the ETME. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Tianchen He et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103771

Read the full article here.


Mid-Cretaceous marine Os isotope evidence for heterogeneous cause of oceanic anoxic events

Abstract. 

"During the mid-Cretaceous, the Earth experienced several environmental perturbations, including an extremely warm climate and Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Submarine volcanic episodes associated with formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs) may have triggered these perturbations. The osmium isotopic ratio (187Os/188Os) is a suitable proxy for tracing hydrothermal activity associated with the LIPs formation, but 187Os/188Os data from the mid-Cretaceous are limited to short time intervals. Here we provide a continuous high-resolution marine 187Os/188Os record covering all mid-Cretaceous OAEs. Several OAEs (OAE1a, Wezel and Fallot events, and OAE2) correspond to unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, suggesting that they were triggered by massive submarine volcanic episodes. However, minor OAEs (OAE1c and OAE1d), which do not show pronounced unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, were likely caused by enhanced monsoonal activity. [...]".

 

Source: Nature Communications 

Authors: Hironao Matsumoto et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27817-0

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Chromium isotope evidence for oxygenation events in the Ediacaran ocean

Abstract. 

"Pulses of the Ediacaran ocean oxygenation were inferred from strong enrichments of redox-sensitive elements (RSEs; particularly Mo, V, U, Re) and negative pyritesulfur isotopes (δ34Spy) in black shales of the Doushantuo Formation in South China. These oceanic oxygenation events (OOEs) have been challenged by the lack of comparable RSE enrichments in correlative strata of northwestern Canada. Here we report four positive chromium isotope (δ53Cr) excursions with peak values (+0.79 ± 0.03‰ to +1.45 ± 0.06‰; 2SD) close to the average δ53Cr value of the modern ocean (+1.0 ± 0.3‰) at the intervals of OOEs, which are separated by low δ53Cr values close to that of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE, −0.124 ± 0.101‰). The positive δ53Cr excursions could be explained by episodic input of oxygenated water from the open ocean to the restricted Nanhua basin, or pulses of ocean oxygenation during the Ediacaran-early Cambrian. The two interpretations can explain the majority of the geochemical data available from the Wuhe section, but both have limitations. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Dongtao Xu et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2022.02.019

Read the full article here.


EBUS Conference 2022

EBUS Conference: September 19 - 23, 2022 in Lima, Peru

"The Open Science Conference on Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS): Past, Present and Future and the Second International Conference on the Humboldt Current System are planned for September 19 - 23 in Lima, Peru. Although the conference aims to be in-person, options for virtual participation will be provided.

The meeting will bring together PhD students, early career scientists and world experts to understand, review, and synthesize what is known about dynamics, sensitivity, vulnerability and resilience of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems and their living resources to climate variability, change and extreme events."

For further information please visit the event's homepage.


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Evidence of hypoxia in the eastern coast of the Gulf of California as induced by stable nitrogen isotopes in surface sediments

Abstract. 

"The Gulf of California is a highly biodiverse marine basin located in the northeast Mexican Pacific Ocean. In the past three decades, this basin has experienced increased hypoxia in shallow waters, which threatens its coastal ecosystems. The aim of this study is to analyze δ15N and δ13C isotopes of organic matter in coastal sediments to characterize sources of primary production and shifts in biogeochemical processes that reflect increasing oxygen deficiency in the shallow coast of the eastern Gulf of California. Surface sediments samples were collected from 8 to 47 m deep along the coastal margin of Sinaloa and Sonora. This region is characterized by the development of anthropogenic activities, which could be the main source of organic matter evidenced in the marine environment. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Alberto Sánchez et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2022.104716

Read the full article here.


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