Heavy iron in large gem diamonds traces deep subduction of serpentinized ocean floor
"Subducting tectonic plates carry water and other surficial components into Earth’s interior. Previous studies suggest that serpentinized peridotite is a key part of deep recycling, but this geochemical pathway has not been directly traced. Here, we report Fe-Ni–rich metallic inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds from a depth of 360 to 750 km with isotopically heavy iron (δ56Fe = 0.79 to 0.90‰) and unradiogenic osmium[...]"
Authors: Evan M. Smith et al.
Dissolved Organic Matter in the Upwelling System off Peru: Imprints of Bacterial Activity and Water Mass Characteristics
"Microbial degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) contributes to the formation and preservation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean, but information on the spatial distribution and molecular composition of DOM in OMZ regions is scarce. We quantified molecular components of DOM that is, dissolved amino acids (DAA) and dissolved combined carbohydrates (DCCHO), in the upwelling region off Peru. We found the highest concentrations of DCCHO in fully oxygenated[...]"
Source: Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: Anja Engel et al.
Ocean currents as a potential dispersal pathway for Antarctica’s most persistent non-native terrestrial insect
"The non-native midge Eretmoptera murphyi is Antarctica’s most persistent non-native insect and is known to impact the terrestrial ecosystems. It inhabits by considerably increasing litter turnover and availability of soil nutrients. The midge was introduced to Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, from its native South Georgia, and routes of dispersal to date have been aided by human activities, with little known about non-human-assisted methods of dispersal. This study is the first to determine the potential for dispersal [...]"
Source: Polar Biology
Authors: Jesamine C. Bartlett et al.
Variable Oxygen Levels Lead to Variable Stoichiometry of Benthic Nutrient Fluxes in a Hypertrophic Estuary
"Harmful blooms of cyanobacteria may extend over long time spans due to self-sustaining mechanisms. We hypothesized that settled blooms may increase redox-dependent P release and unbalance the stoichiometry of benthic nutrient regeneration (NH4+:SiO2:PO43− ratios). We tested this hypothesis in the hypertrophic Curonian Lagoon, the largest in Europe. During summer, at peak chlorophyll and water temperatures, sediment cores were collected over 19 stations representing all the lagoon sedimentary environments. Sediment organic content, granulometry, aerobic respiration, and oxic[...]"
Source: Estuaries and Coasts
Authors: Marco Bartoli et al.
Deoxygenation impacts on Baltic Sea cod: Dramatic declines in ecosystem services of an iconic keystone predator
"The intensified expansion of the Baltic Sea’s hypoxic zone has been proposed as one reason for the current poor status of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, with repercussions throughout the food web and on ecosystem services. We examined the links between increased hypoxic areas and the decline in maximum length of Baltic cod, a demographic proxy for services[...]"
Authors: Alessandro Orio et al.
Ocean acidification may slow the pace of tropicalization of temperate fish communities
"Poleward range extensions by warm-adapted sea urchins are switching temperate marine ecosystems from kelp-dominated to barren-dominated systems that favour the establishment of range-extending tropical fishes. Yet, such tropicalization may be buffered by ocean acidification, which reduces urchin grazing performance and the urchin barrens that tropical range-extending fishes prefer.[...]"
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Ericka O. C. Coni et al.
Global declines in coral reef calcium carbonate production under ocean acidification and warming
"Ocean warming and acidification threaten the future growth of coral reefs. This is because the calcifying coral reef taxa that construct the calcium carbonate frameworks and cement the reef together are highly sensitive to ocean warming and acidification. However, the global-scale effects of ocean warming and acidification on rates of coral reef net carbonate production remain poorly constrained despite a wealth of studies assessing their effects on the calcification of individual organisms[...]"
Source: PNAS- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Authors: Christopher E. Cornwall et al.
The poleward enhanced Arctic Ocean cooling machine in a warming climate
"As a cooling machine of the Arctic Ocean, the Barents Sea releases most of the incoming ocean heat originating from the North Atlantic. The related air-sea heat exchange plays a crucial role in both regulating the climate and determining the deep circulation in the Arctic Ocean and beyond. It was reported that the cooling efficiency of this cooling machine has decreased significantly. In this study, we find that the overall cooling efficiency did not really drop: When the cooling efficiency decreased in the southern Barents Sea[...]"
Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Qi Shu et al.
Rain-fed streams dilute inorganic nutrients but subsidise organic-matter-associated nutrients in coastal waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean
"In coastal regions, rivers and streams may be important sources of nutrients limiting to primary production in marine waters; however, sampling is still rarely conducted across the land-to-ocean aquatic continuum, precluding conclusions from being drawn about connectivity between freshwater and marine systems. Here we use a more-than-4-year dataset (2014–2018) of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, iron) and dissolved organic carbon spanning streams draining coastal watersheds and nearshore marine surface waters along the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada, at the heart of the North Pacific coastal temperate[...]"
Authors: Kyra A. St. Pierre et al.
Trends and variability of ocean waves under RCP8.5 emission scenario in the Mediterranean Sea
"Wind-generated ocean waves are key inputs for several studies and applications, both near the coast (coastal vulnerability assessment, coastal structures design, harbor operativity) and off-shore (a.o. oil and gas production, ship routes, and navigation safety). As such, the evaluation of trends in future wave climate is fundamental for the development of efficient policies in the framework of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. This study focuses[...]"
Source: Ocean Dynamics
Authors: Francesco De Leo et al.