Responses of Horizontally Expanding Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones to Climate Change Based on Observations
"Due to climate change, global oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO) has been decreasing, and oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have been expanding. Here, we estimate the annual global and regional OMZ areas using geostatistical regression combined with Monte Carlo. From 1960 to 2019, annual global OMZ20 (DO < 20 μmol/kg) and OMZ60 (DO < 60 μmol/kg) areas cover 5%–14% and 15%–32% of the global ocean, respectively. The global and most regional OMZ areas after the late 2000s were all significantly larger than those in previous years. [...]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Yuntao Zhou et al.
Ocean currents as a potential dispersal pathway for Antarctica’s most persistent non-native terrestrial insect
"The non-native midge Eretmoptera murphyi is Antarctica’s most persistent non-native insect and is known to impact the terrestrial ecosystems. It inhabits by considerably increasing litter turnover and availability of soil nutrients. The midge was introduced to Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, from its native South Georgia, and routes of dispersal to date have been aided by human activities, with little known about non-human-assisted methods of dispersal. This study is the first to determine the potential for dispersal of a terrestrial invertebrate species in Antarctica by combining physiological sea water tolerance data with quantitative assessments[...]"
Source: Polar Biology
Authors: Jesamine C. Bartlett et al.
The soundscape of the Anthropocene ocean
"Oceans have become substantially noisier since the Industrial Revolution. Shipping, resource exploration, and infrastructure development have increased the anthrophony (sounds generated by human activities), whereas the biophony (sounds of biological origin) has been reduced by hunting, fishing, and habitat degradation. Climate change is affecting geophony (abiotic, natural sounds). Existing evidence shows that anthrophony affects marine animals[...]".
Authors: Carlos M. Duarte et al.
Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate
"The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services1,2, but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected3. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue[...]"
Authors: Enric Sala et al.
Ocean acidification may slow the pace of tropicalization of temperate fish communities
"Poleward range extensions by warm-adapted sea urchins are switching temperate marine ecosystems from kelp-dominated to barren-dominated systems that favour the establishment of range-extending tropical fishes. Yet, such tropicalization may be buffered by ocean acidification, which reduces urchin grazing performance and the urchin barrens that tropical range-extending fishes prefer.[...]"
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Ericka O. C. Coni et al.
Investigating the Roles of External Forcing and Ocean Circulation on the Atlantic Multidecadal SST Variability in a Large Ensemble Climate Model Hiera
"This paper attempts to enhance our understanding of the causes of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, the AMV. Following the literature, we define the AMV as the SST averaged over the North Atlantic basin, linearly detrended and low-pass filtered. There is an ongoing debate about the drivers of the AMV, which include internal variability generated from the ocean or atmosphere (or both), and external radiative forcing. We test the role of these factors in explaining the time history, variance, and spatial pattern of the AMV using[...]"
Source: American Meteorological Soceity
Authors: Lisa N. Murphy et al.
Current Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation weakest in last millennium
"The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)—one of Earth’s major ocean circulation systems—redistributes heat on our planet and has a major impact on climate. Here, we compare a variety of published proxy records to reconstruct the evolution of the AMOC since about AD 400. A fairly consistent picture of the AMOC emerges: after a long and relatively stable period, there was an initial weakening starting in the nineteenth century, followed by a second, more rapid, decline in the mid-twentieth[...]"
Source: Nature Geosciences
Authors: L. Caesar et al.
Mixing by Oceanic Lee Waves
"Oceanic lee waves are generated in the deep stratified ocean by the flow of ocean currents over sea floor topography, and when they break, they can lead to mixing in the stably stratified ocean interior. While the theory of linear lee waves is well established, the nonlinear mechanisms leading to mixing are still under investigation. Tidally driven lee waves have long been observed in the ocean, along with associated mixing, but observations of lee waves forced by geostrophic eddies are relatively sparse and largely indirect[...]"
Source: Annual Reviews
Authors: Sonya Legg
Multi‐Century Impacts of Ice Sheet Retreat on Sea Level and Ocean Tides in Hudson Bay
"Past and modern large‐scale ice sheet loss results in geographically variable sea level changes. At present, in Hudson Bay, Canada, sea level is decreasing due to glacial isostatic adjustment, which represents a departure from the globally averaged sea level rise. However, there are large uncertainties in future sea level trends with further polar ice sheet retreat in the coming centuries. Sea level changes affect ocean tides considerably because tides are highly sensitive to changes in bathymetry. Here, we present multi‐century sea level projections associated with a suite of past and future ice loss scenarios and consider the impact of these changes on ocean tides[...]"
Source: Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: A.‐M. Hayden et al.
Ideas and perspectives: A strategic assessment of methane and nitrous oxide measurements in the marine environment
"In the current era of rapid climate change, accurate characterization of climate-relevant gas dynamics – namely production, consumption, and net emissions – is required for all biomes, especially those ecosystems most susceptible to the impact of change. Marine environments include regions that act as net sources or sinks for numerous climate-active trace gases including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The temporal and spatial distributions of CH4 and N2O are controlled by the interaction of complex biogeochemical and physical processes. To evaluate and quantify how these mechanisms affect marine CH4 and N2O cycling requires a combination of traditional scientific disciplines including oceanography, microbiology, and numerical modeling[...]"
Authors: Samuel T. Wilson et al.