Biotic induction and microbial ecological dynamics of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2
"Understanding the causal mechanisms of past marine deoxygenation is critical to predicting the long-term Earth systems response to climate change. However, the processes and events preceding widespread carbon burial coincident with oceanic anoxic events remain poorly constrained. Here, we report a comprehensive biomarker inventory enveloping Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 that captures microbial communities spanning epipelagic to benthic environments in the southern proto-North Atlantic Ocean. We identify an abrupt, sustained increase in primary productivity that predates Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 by ∼220 ± 4 thousand years, well before other geochemical proxies register biogeochemical perturbations. [...]".
Source: Communications Earth & Environment
Authors: Gregory T. Connock et al.
Oceanic anoxia and extinction in the latest Ordovician
"The Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) mass extinction (LOME) was marked by two discrete pulses of high species turnover rates attributed to glacial cooling (LOME-1) and subsequent expansion of anoxic marine conditions (LOME-2). However, the mechanisms and extent of global marine anoxia remain controversial. In this study, we present uranium isotope (U) data from a new Ordovician-Silurian (O-S) boundary carbonate section in the Southwest China to explore the extent/duration of the global marine anoxia, and links to the LOME. [...]".
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Mu Liu et al.
On anomalously high sub-surface dissolved oxygen in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean
"The Southern Ocean (SO) plays a critical role in global ocean productivity and carbon cycling. Bio-Argo floats deployed in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean provides new insights into the biogeochemical processes. Here we report significantly higher dissolved oxygen (DO) (~ 310 μmol/kg) in summer of 2014–2015 for one float (F1) and winter of 2014 in other float (F2) at sub-surface layer in the subantarctic region of the SO. The summer DO peak in F1 was 10% higher than those during the summer of succeeding year, while the winter DO peak in F2 was 20% higher than those during the winter of succeeding year. [...]".
Source: Journal of Oceanography
Authors: Prince Prakash et al.
Coastlines at Risk of Hypoxia From Natural Variability in the Northern Indian Ocean
"Coastal hypoxia—harmfully low levels of oxygen—is a mounting problem that jeopardizes coastal ecosystems and economies. The northern Indian Ocean is particularly susceptible due to human-induced impacts, vast naturally occurring oxygen minimum zones, and strong variability associated with the seasonal monsoons and interannual Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). We assess how natural factors influence the risk of coastal hypoxia by combining a large set of oxygen measurements with satellite observations to examine how the IOD amplifies or suppresses seasonal hypoxia tied to the Asian Monsoon. We show that on both seasonal and interannual timescales hypoxia is controlled by wind- and coastal Kelvin wave-driven upwelling of oxygen-poor waters onto the continental shelf and reinforcing biological feedbacks (increased subsurface oxygen demand). [...]".
Source: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Authors: Jenna Pearson et al.
Trace elements V, Ni, Mo and U: A geochemical tool to quantify dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxygen minimum zone of the north-eastern Pacific
"Deoxygenation of the water column in the oceans and in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) has become relevant due to its connection with global climate change. The variability of the OMZ has been inferred by in situ measurements for the last 70 years and qualitatively assessed through the monitoring of trace elements and the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) of organic matter on several time scales. The V, Ni, Mo and U concentrations in surface sediments and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water column of La Paz Bay and the Mazatlán margin were used to propose an exponential regression model. This model will allow the inference of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the sedimentary records from the Alfonso Basin in La Paz Bay and in the Mazatlán margin over the last 250 years. [...]".
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Alberto Sánchez et al.
Widespread oxyregulation in tropical corals under hypoxia
"Hypoxia (low oxygen stress) is increasingly reported on coral reefs, caused by ocean deoxygenation linked to coastal nutrient pollution and ocean warming. While the ability to regulate respiration is a key driver of hypoxia tolerance in many other aquatic taxa, corals' oxyregulatory capabilities remain virtually unexplored. Here, we examine O2-consumption patterns across 17 coral species under declining O2partial pressure (pO2). All corals showed ability to oxyregulate, but total positive regulation (Tpos) varied between species, ranging from 0.41 (Pocillopora damicornis) to 2.42 (P. acuta). [...]".
Source: Science Direct
Authors: David J. Hughes et al.