News

The vulnerability of sharks, skates, and rays to ocean deoxygenation: Physiological mechanisms, behavioral responses, and ecological impacts

Abstract.

"Levels of dissolved oxygen in open ocean and coastal waters are decreasing (ocean deoxygenation), with poorly understood effects on marine megafauna. All of the more than 1000 species of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) are obligate water breathers, with a variety of life-history strategies and oxygen requirements. This review demonstrates that although many elasmobranchs typically avoid hypoxic water, they also appear capable of withstanding mild to moderate hypoxia with changes in activity, ventilatory responses, alterations to circulatory and hematological parameters, and morphological alterations to gill structures. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Matt J. Waller et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.15830

Read the full article here.


Ocean deoxygenation dampens resistance of diatoms to ocean acidification in darkness

Abstract.

"Respiratory activity in the oceans is declining due to the expansion of hypoxic zones and progressive deoxygenation, posing threats to marine organisms along with impacts of concurrent ocean acidification. Therefore, understanding the combined impacts of reduced pO2 and elevated pCO2 on marine primary producers is of considerable significance. Here, to simulate diatoms’ sinking into the aphotic zone of turbid coastal water, we exposed the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Thalassiosira weissflogii in darkness at 20°C [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Jia-Zhen Sun et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2024.1387552

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Editorial: Drivers and consequences of ocean deoxygenation in tropical ecosystems

Abstract.

"Coastal habitats are under increasing anthropogenic pressures that jeopardize the survival and persistence of ecologically important marine life. One such stressor, increasingly recognized as a significant threat to marine coastal habitats, is deoxygenation (Breitburg et al., 2018; IPCC, 2023). The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development has identified deoxygenation as a top international priority for ocean research, with efforts being led by the Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE) and affiliated programs (Global Ocean Oxygen Decade program). [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Maggie D. Johnson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2024.1425902

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Oxygen declination in the coastal ocean over the twenty-first century: Driving forces, trends, and impacts

Abstract.

"Oxygen declination in coastal oceans has accelerated drastically in recent decades, both in terms of severity and spatial extent, and such disappearance of oxygen leads to dead zones where life can't survive. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to nutrient pollution and climate change due to intensified anthropogenic activities. The annual statistical oxygen mean concentrations showed the current deoxygenation trends based on (WOA_2001–2018) data comparison of 200 m below the surface water from the first two decades of the 21st century. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Md Mesbah Uddin Bhuiyan et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscee.2024.100621

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Preprint: ISASO2 : Recent trends and regional patterns of Ocean Dissolved Oxygen change

Abstract.

"Recent estimates of the global inventory of dissolved oxygen (DO) have suggested a decrease of 2 % since the 1960s. However, due to the sparse historical oxygen data coverage, the DO inventory exhibits large regional uncertainties at interannual timescale. Using ISASO2, a new DO Argo-based optimally interpolated climatology https://doi.org/10.17882/52367 (Kolodziejczyk et al.,2021), we have estimated an updated regional oxygen inventory. Over the long term (~1980–2013), comparing the ISASO2 Argo fields with the first guess WOA18 built from the DO bottle samples fields extracted from WOD18, the broad tendency to global ocean deoxygenation remains robust in the upper 2000 m with -451±243 Tmol per decade. [...]".

 

Source: Earth System Science Data
Authors: Nicolas Kolodziejczyk et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2024-106

Read the full article here.


Preprint: Reviews and syntheses: Biological Indicators of Oxygen Stress in Water Breathing Animals

Abstract.

"Anthropogenic warming and nutrient over-enrichment of our oceans have resulted in significant, and often catastrophic, reductions in dissolved oxygen (deoxygenation). Stress on water-breathing animals from this deoxygenation has been shown to occur at all levels of biological organization: cellular; organ; individual; species; population; community; and ecosystem. Most climate forecasts predict increases in ocean deoxygenation, thus it is essential to develop reliable biological indicators of oxygen stress that can be used by regional and global oxygen monitoring efforts to detect and assess the impacts of deoxygenation on ocean life. [...]".

 

Source: EGUsphere 
Authors: Michael R. Roman et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-616

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Preprint: Signatures of Oxygen-Depleted Waters along the Sumatra-Java Coasts in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean

Abstract.

"A prominent ocean region exhibiting depleted oxygen concentration is the northern Indian Ocean, whose projected deoxygenation trend in response to climate change requires a comprehensive understanding of the roles of ocean dynamics. We present newly compiled in situ data across platforms (e.g. cruises, Argo, buoy) in the Indonesian coasts of Sumatra and Java between 2010–2022. Combined with reanalysis products, our data detect oxygen-depleted waters attributed to the eastward advection of the northern Indian Ocean waters and monsoon-driven coastal upwelling. [...]".

 

Source: EGUsphere
Authors: Faisal Hamzah et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2024-451

Read the full article here.


Shifts in magnetic mineral assemblages support ocean deoxygenation before the end-Permian mass extinction

Abstract.

"Expansion of oceanic anoxia is a prevailing hypothesis for driving the marine end-Permian mass extinction and is mainly based on isotopic geochemical proxies. However, long-term oceanic redox conditions before the end-Permian mass extinction remain unresolved. Here we report a secular redox trend based on rock magnetic experiments and cerium anomalies through the Changhsingian and across the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Meishan section, China. Magnetic mineral assemblages changed dramatically at ca. 252.8 million years age (Ma), which indicates that oceanic deoxygenation started about 0.9 million years earlier than the end-Permian mass extinction. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Min Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-024-01394-8

Read the full article here.


Simulated Abrupt Shifts in Aerobic Habitats of Marine Species in the Past, Present, and Future

Abstract.

"The physiological tolerances of marine species toward ambient temperature and oxygen can jointly be evaluated in a single metric: the metabolic index. Changes therein characterize a changing aerobic habitat tailored to species-specific thermal and hypoxia sensitivity traits. If the geographical limits of marine species as indicated by critical thresholds of the metabolic index shift abruptly in response to ocean warming and deoxygenation, aerobic habitat could potentially be lost abruptly. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Friederike Fröb et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2023EF004141

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Adjusting metabolic rates and critical oxygen tension in planktonic copepods under increasing hypoxia in highly productive coastal upwelling zones

Abstract.

"Ongoing ocean deoxygenation is threatening marine organisms globally. In eastern boundary upwelling systems, planktonic copepods dominate the epipelagic zooplankton, being crucial in the marine food web. Yet, they must cope with severe hypoxia caused by shoaling of the oxygen minimum zone. Based on laboratory experiments during 2021, we found differential responses in the metabolic rate (MR) and critical oxygen partial pressure of three abundant copepods. Calanoides patagoniensis doubled its MR during the upwelling season, so better exploiting the spring phytoplankton bloom for feeding and reproduction while maintaining their critical oxygen partial pressure unchanged between seasons. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Leissing Frederick et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.12556

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The global energy transition offers new options for mitigation of coastal hypoxia: Do we know enough?

Abstract.

"The mitigation of climate change and pollution-related hypoxia and anoxia is a growing challenge for coastal communities. Known ocean conservation measures do not show the desired fast results counteracting deoxygenation. The new infrastructure related to the coastal production of renewable energies linked to the production of green hydrogen can provide new possibilities of artificial ocean reoxygenation to mitigate coastal hypoxia, but has to be treated urgently and seriously from different scientific, engineering and socio-economic angles. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Patricia Handmann & Douglas Wallace
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.17228

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Intra-colony spatial variance of oxyregulation and hypoxic thresholds for key Acropora coral species

Abstract.

"Oxygen (O2) availability is essential for healthy coral reef functioning, yet how continued loss of dissolved O2 via ocean deoxygenation impacts performance of reef building corals remains unclear. Here, we examine how intra-colony spatial geometry of important Great Barrier Reef (GBR) coral species Acropora may influence variation in hypoxic thresholds for upregulation, to better understand capacity to tolerate future reductions in O2 availability. We first evaluate the application of more streamlined models used to parameterise Hypoxia Response Curve data, models that have been used historically to identify variable oxyregulatory capacity. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Nicole J. Dilernia et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.11100

Read the full article here.


Decreasing available O2 interacts with light to alter the growth and fatty acid content in a marine diatom

Abstract.

"Hypoxic zones and oceanic deoxygenation are spreading worldwide due to anthropogenic activities and climate change, greatly affecting marine organisms exposed to lowered O2. Yet, the effects of the lowered O2 on phytoplankton are often neglected when studying O2 effects as they are the O2 producers. Here we showed that low O2 (dissolved O2, 150 ± 10 μmol L−1) enhanced the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in limited light but reduced it in moderate to inhibitory light and that hypoxia (40 ± 7.5 μmol L−1) reduced its growth at any growth lights. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Bokun Chen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2024.105667

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Critical swimming speed of juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes) following long- and short-term exposures to acidification and deoxygenation

Abstract.

"Reef fishes in the California Current Ecosystem have evolved in habitats affected by seasonally variable, episodic upwelling of high pCO2 (acidified, low pH) and low dissolved oxygen (deoxygenated) water, which suggests that these fishes might exhibit resilience to ocean acidification (OA) and deoxygenation. Yet, how the fitness of these fish are affected by natural variability in pH and DO over short time scales remains poorly understood, as do the effects of longer-term trends in pH and DO driven by climate change. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Corianna Flannery & Eric P. Bjorkstedt
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2024.151993

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Whole transcriptome analysis of demersal fish eggs reveals complex responses to ocean deoxygenation and acidification

Abstract.

"Ocean acidification and deoxygenation co-occur in marine environments, causing deterioration of marine ecosystems. However, effects of compound stresses on marine organisms and their physiological coping mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show how high pCO2 and low dissolved oxygen (DO) cause transcriptomic changes in eggs of a demersal fish (Sillago japonica), which are fully exposed to such stresses in natural environment. Overall gene expression was affected more strongly by low DO than by high pCO2. Enrichment analysis detected significant stress responses such as glycolytic processes in response to low DO. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Akira Iguchi et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.169484

Read the full article here.


Preprint: Reviews and syntheses: Abrupt ocean biogeochemical change under human-made climatic forcing – warming, acidification, and deoxygenation

Abstract.

"Abrupt changes in ocean biogeochemical variables occur as a result of human-induced climate forcing as well as those which are more gradual and occur over longer timescales. These abrupt changes have not yet been identified and quantified to the same extent as the more gradual ones. We review and synthesise abrupt changes in ocean biogeochemistry under human-induced climatic forcing. We specifically address the ocean carbon and oxygen cycles because the related processes of acidification and deoxygenation provide important ecosystem hazards. [...]".

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Christoph Heinze et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2023-182

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Marine anoxia initiates giant sulfur-oxidizing bacterial mat proliferation and associated changes in benthic nitrogen, sulfur, and iron cycling...

Full title: "Marine anoxia initiates giant sulfur-oxidizing bacterial mat proliferation and associated changes in benthic nitrogen, sulfur, and iron cycling in the Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland"

Abstract.

"The Santa Barbara Basin naturally experiences transient deoxygenation due to its unique geological setting in the southern California Borderland and seasonal changes in ocean currents. Long-term measurements of the basin showed that anoxic events and subsequent nitrate exhaustion in the bottom waters have been occurring more frequently [...]".

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: David J. Yousavich et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-21-789-2024

Read the full article here.


Enhanced ocean deoxygenation in the Bering Sea during MIS 11c

Abstract.

"Accelerated Arctic warming has raised concerns about future environmental conditions in the Bering Sea, one of the world's most productive marine ecosystems. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (424–374 ka), a period with orbital parameters similar to those of the current interglacial (Holocene), is thought to be a suitable analog to predict future marine environments. Here, we reconstruct paleoredox changes in the Bering Sea over the last 800 kyr using high-resolution U/Th ratios from four sites, which were sampled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Xuguang Feng et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111982

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Climate, Oxygen, and the Future of Marine Biodiversity

Abstract.

"The ocean enabled the diversification of life on Earth by adding O2 to the atmosphere, yet marine species remain most subject to O2 limitation. Human industrialization is intensifying the aerobic challenges to marine ecosystems by depleting the ocean's O2 inventory through the global addition of heat and local addition of nutrients. Historical observations reveal an ∼2% decline in upper-ocean O2 and accelerating reports of coastal mass mortality events. The dynamic balance of O2 supply and demand provides a unifying framework for understanding these phenomena across scales from the global ocean to individual organisms. [...]".

 

Source: Annual Review of Marine Science
Authors: Curtis Deutsch et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-040323-095231

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Highly active fish in low oxygen environments: vertical movements and behavioural responses of bigeye and yellowfin tunas to oxygen minimum zones...

Full title: "Highly active fish in low oxygen environments: vertical movements and behavioural responses of bigeye and yellowfin tunas to oxygen minimum zones in the eastern Pacific Ocean"

Abstract.

"Oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean are predicted to significantly increase in volume over the coming decades as a result of anthropogenic climatic warming. The resulting reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO) in the pelagic realm is likely to have detrimental impacts on water-breathing organisms, particularly those with higher metabolic rates, such as billfish, tunas, and sharks. [...]".

 

Source: Springer Nature 
Authors: Nicolas E. Humphries et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-023-04366-2

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Divergent responses of the coral holobiont to deoxygenation and prior environmental stress

Abstract.

"Ocean deoxygenation is intensifying globally due to human activities – and is emerging as a grave threat to coral reef ecosystems where it can cause coral bleaching and mass mortality. However, deoxygenation is one of many threats to coral reefs, making it essential to understand how prior environmental stress may influence responses to deoxygenation. To address this question, we examined responses of the coral holobiont (i.e., the coral host, Symbiodiniaceae, and the microbiome) to deoxygenation in corals with different environmental stress backgrounds. [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Sara D. Swaminathan et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1301474

Read the full article here.


Redox geochemical signatures in Mediterranean sapropels: Implications to constrain deoxygenation dynamics in deep-marine settings

Abstract.

"Global warming and anthropogenic activity are boosting marine deoxygenation in many regions around the globe. Deoxygenation is a critical ocean stressor with profound implications for marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Understanding the dynamics and evolution of past deoxygenation events can enhance our knowledge of present-day and future impacts of climate change and anthropogenic pressure on marine environments. Many studies have reconstructed the evolution redox conditions of past deoxygenation events using geochemical proxies. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Ricardo D. Monedero-Contreras et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111953

Read the full article here.


The past to unravel the future: Deoxygenation events in the geological archive and the anthropocene oxygen crisis

Abstract.

"Despite the observation that we are witnessing a true oxygen crisis, the ocean deoxygenation theme is getting less attention from the media and population compared to other environmental stressors concerning climate change. The current ocean oxygen crisis is characterized by a complex interplay of climatic, biological, and oceanographic processes acting at different time scales. Earth system models offer insights into future deoxygenation events and their potential extent [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Alan Maria Mancini et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2023.104664

Read the full article here.


Interactive effects of ocean deoxygenation and acidification on a coastal fish Sillago japonica in early life stages

Abstract.

"Acidification and deoxygenation are major threats to ocean environments. Despite the possibilities of their co-occurrence, little is known about their interactive effects on marine organisms. The effects of low pH and low dissolved oxygen (DO) on the early life stages of the coastal fish Sillago japonica were investigated. Twenty-five experimental treatments fully crossed in five levels of pH 7.6–8.1 and DO 50–230 μmol/kg (20–100 % saturation degree) were tested, and hatching rate of the embryos and survivability of the larvae after 24 h at 25 °C were investigated. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Makiko Yorifuji et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.115896

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Can green hydrogen production be used to mitigate ocean deoxygenation? A scenario from the Gulf of St. Lawrence

Abstract.

"Ocean deoxygenation and expansion and intensification of hypoxia in the ocean are a major, growing threat to marine ecosystems. Measures currently used to protect marine biodiversity (e.g., marine protected areas) are ineffective in countering this threat. Here, we highlight the example of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in eastern Canada, where oxygen loss is not only due to eutrophication (which can be mitigated by nutrient controls) but also is a consequence of ocean circulation change and warming. Climate-related loss of oxygen will be an increasingly widespread source of risk to marine biodiversity over this century. [...]".

 

Source: Springer Nature
Authors: Douglas W. R. Wallace et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-023-10094-1

Read the full article here.


High-frequency dynamics of pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature in the coastal ecosystems of the Tanga-Pemba Seascape...

Full title: "High-frequency dynamics of pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature in the coastal ecosystems of the Tanga-Pemba Seascape: implications for upwelling-enhanced ocean acidification and deoxygenation"

Abstract.

"Ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and warming are three interconnected global change challenges caused by increased anthropogenic carbon emissions. These issues present substantial threats to marine organisms, ecosystems, and the survival of coastal communities depending on these ecosystems. Coastal upwelling areas may experience significant [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Rushingisha George et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1286870

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Editorial: Constraining uncertainties in hindcasts and future projections of marine deoxygenation

Abstract.

"Ocean deoxygenation is a key stressor for marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles (Gruber, 2011; Breitburg et al., 2018). Climate projections based on Earth system models (ESMs) suggest that the global oxygen inventory will undergo a significant decline over the next century under persistent greenhouse gas emissions (Bopp et al., 2013; Kwiatkowski et al., 2020). Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) located close to productive eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs) and the Arabian Sea may expand or shift in spatial extent dramatically, thereby impacting regional marine habitats (Stramma et al., 2012) and ecosystem services (Lachkar et al., 2023). [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Masahito Shigemitsu et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1355015

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Sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation during the Messinian: Toward constraining the dynamics of Mediterranean deoxygenation

Abstract.

"During the Messinian, the sensitivity of the Mediterranean Basin to ecosystem perturbation was enhanced in response to the progressive restriction of water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. The widespread deposition of organic-rich layers (i.e. sapropel) during the Messinian testifies the perturbation of the carbon and oxygen cycles; indeed, these sediments were deposited under conditions of oxygen starvation, presumably in response to a periodic deterioration of the thermohaline circulation strength. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Alan Maria Mancini et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2023.104217

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Depth Variance of Organic Matter Respiration Stoichiometry in the Subtropical North Atlantic and the Implications for the Global Oxygen Cycle

Abstract.

"Climate warming likely drives ocean deoxygenation, but models still cannot fully explain observed declines in oxygen. One unconstrained parameter is the oxygen demand per carbon respired for complete remineralization of organic matter (i.e., the total respiration quotient, rΣ-O2:C). Here, we tested if rΣ-O2:C declined with depth by quantifying suspended concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), particulate organic phosphorus (POP), particulate chemical oxygen demand (PCOD), and total oxygen demand (Σ-O2 = PCOD + 2PON) down to a depth of 1,000 m in the Sargasso Sea. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Skylar D. Gerace et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2023GB007814

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Butterfly effect of shallow-ocean deoxygenation on past marine biodiversity

Abstract.

"A geochemical study of an ancient mass-extinction event shows that only moderate expansion of oxygen-deficient waters along continental margins is needed to decimate marine biodiversity. This finding provides a stark warning of the possible consequences of human-driven ocean deoxygenation on life in Earth’s shallow oceans. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Brian Kendall
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-023-01310-3

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Vertical variation of bacterial production and potential role in oxygen loss in the southern Bay of Bengal

Abstract.

"Marine environments wherein long-term microbial oxygen consumption exceeds oxygen replenishment can be associated with oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). The Bay of Bengal OMZ (BOB-OMZ) is one of the most intense OMZs globally. To assess the contribution of bacterial oxygen consumption to oxygen loss in BOB-OMZ, we measured bacterial production (BP), temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in the whole water column. [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Microbiology
Authors: Wenqi Ye et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2023.1250575

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Reconstruction of dissolved oxygen in the Indian Ocean from 1980 to 2019 based on machine learning techniques

Abstract.

"Oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO) decline in the Indian Ocean has profound implications for Earth’s climate and human habitation in Eurasia and Africa. Owing to sparse observations, there is little research on DO variations, regional comparisons, and its relationship with marine environmental changes in the entire Indian Ocean. In this study, we applied different machine learning algorithms to fit regression models between measured DO, ocean reanalysis physical variables, and spatiotemporal variables. [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Sheng Huang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1291232

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Editorial: Recent developments in oxygen minimum zones biogeochemistry

Abstract.

"Marine Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) modulate biogeochemical cycles, and directly impact climate dynamics by influencing air-sea fluxes of the potent greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide (Levin, 2018). OMZs are formed in regions of weak oxygen (O2) supply from physical ventilation and high integrated microbial O2 demand fueled by downward organic flux from overlying surface waters. The ocean’s major OMZs are found in the Eastern Tropical South and North Pacific Ocean and the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean (Karstensen et al., 2008; Stramma et al., 2008). [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Annie Bourbonnais et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1333731

Read the full article here.


Assessing impacts of coastal warming, acidification, and deoxygenation on Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) farming ...

Full title: "Assessing impacts of coastal warming, acidification, and deoxygenation on Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) farming: a case study in the Hinase area, Okayama Prefecture, and Shizugawa Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan"

Abstract.

"Coastal warming, acidification, and deoxygenation are progressing primarily due to the increase in anthropogenic CO2. Coastal acidification has been reported to have effects that are anticipated to become more severe as acidification progresses, including inhibiting the formation of shells of calcifying organisms such as shellfish, which include Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) [...]".

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Masahiko Fujii et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-20-4527-2023

Read the full article here.


Spatially heterogenous seawater δ34S and global cessation of Ca-sulfate burial during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

Abstract.

"The early Toarcian of the Early Jurassic saw a long-term positive carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) abruptly interrupted by a significant negative excursion (nCIE), associated with rapid global warming and an oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE, ∼183 Ma). However, the detailed processes and mechanisms behind widespread ocean deoxygenation are unclear. Here, we present high-resolution carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur-isotope [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Zhong Han et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2023.118404

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Mentoring the next generation of ocean deoxygenation and acidification scientists

Intro.

"UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC/UNESCO), El Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA) and the Universidad Catolica del Norte, as well as many other partners and sponsors organized the GOOD-OARS-CLAP-COPAS Summer School from 6-12 November 2023 in La Serena, Chile, to teach the latest science of ocean acidification and deoxygenation."

Source: IOC-UNESCO

For further information, please read here


Ocean deoxygenation caused non-linear responses in the structure and functioning of benthic ecosystems

Abstract.

"The O2 content of the global ocean has been declining progressively over the past decades, mainly because of human activities and global warming. Nevertheless, how long-term deoxygenation affects macrobenthic communities, sediment biogeochemistry and their mutual feedback remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the response of the benthic assemblages and biogeochemical functioning to decreasing O2 concentrations along the persistent bottom-water dissolved O2 gradient of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (QC, Canada). [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Ludovic Pascal et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16994

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Decadal variability of oxygen uptake, export, and storage in the Labrador Sea from observations and CMIP6 models

Abstract.

"The uptake of dissolved oxygen from the atmosphere via air-sea gas exchange and its physical transport away from the region of uptake are crucial for supplying oxygen to the deep ocean. This process takes place in a few key regions that feature intense oxygen uptake, deep water formation, and physical oxygen export. In this study we analyze one such region, the Labrador Sea, utilizing the World Ocean Database (WOD) to construct a 65–year oxygen content time series in the Labrador Sea Water (LSW) layer (0–2200 m). [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science 
Authors: Jannes Koelling et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1202299

Read the full article here.


Simulations of ocean deoxygenation in the historical era: insights from forced and coupled models

Abstract.

"Ocean deoxygenation due to anthropogenic warming represents a major threat to marine ecosystems and fisheries. Challenges remain in simulating the modern observed changes in the dissolved oxygen (O2). Here, we present an analysis of upper ocean (0-700m) deoxygenation in recent decades from a suite of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) ocean biogeochemical simulations. The physics and biogeochemical simulations include both ocean-only (the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project Phase 1 and 2, OMIP1 and OMIP2) and coupled Earth system (CMIP6 Historical) configurations. [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science 
Authors: Yohei Takano et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1139917

Read the full article here.


Carbonate uranium isotopes across Cretaceous OAE 2 in southern Mexico: New constraints on the global spread of marine anoxia and organic carbon burial

Abstract.

"Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) represent discrete intervals of decreased marine oxygen concentrations often associated with volcanism, enhanced organic carbon burial coupled with positive δ13C excursions, and significant biotic turnover. Cretaceous OAE 2 (ca. 94 Mya) is especially notable for globally-distributed changes in calcareous invertebrate and plankton populations. While the presence of organic-rich facies is consistent with locally anoxic environments in many cases, determining the global extent of anoxia is more problematic. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Joseph T. Kulenguski et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111756

Read the full article here.


Editorial: Oxygen decline in coastal waters: its cause, present situation and future projection

Abstract.

"The decline of oxygen levels in coastal waters has emerged as a significant and pressing concern, carrying extensive ecological and environmental ramifications. Coastal areas, the interface between land and sea, represent intricate and dynamic ecosystems that hold paramount importance for global biodiversity and sustain a multitude of human activities. Nevertheless, these coastal regions are confronted with mounting stressors originating from both human-induced factors such as nutrient pollution [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Weiwei Fu & Tsuneo Ono
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1316092

Read the full article here.


Widespread marine euxinia along the western Yangtze Platform caused by oxygen minimum zone expansion during the Capitanian mass extinction

Abstract.

"The development of widespread marine anoxic and/or euxinic conditions has been proposed as a likely driver of the mid-Capitanian mass extinction. However, the driving mechanisms and spatiotemporal evolution of anoxia/euxinia remain poorly constrained. In order to decipher changes in marine redox conditions and their possible influence on the mid-Capitanian biotic crisis, we applied multiple geochemical indicators to three sections across a shelf-to-basin transect in the Middle Permian Kuhfeng and Lower Yinping formations of the Lower Yangtze Basin, South China. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Bolin Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104273

Read the full article here.


Combined effects of ocean deoxygenation, acidification, and phosphorus limitation on green tide macroalga, Ulva prolifera

Abstract.

"Ocean deoxygenation, acidification, and decreased phosphorus availability are predicted to increase in coastal ecosystems under future climate change. However, little is known regarding the combined effects of such environmental variables on the green tide macroalga Ulva prolifera. Here, we provide quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the acclimation mechanisms of U. prolifera to ocean deoxygenation, acidification, and phosphorus limitation under both laboratory and semi-natural (mesocosms) conditions. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Xintong Huang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.164982

Read the full article here.


Hands-on Hypoxia: Engaging High School Educators in the science behind Marine Microbial Dynamics in Hypoxic Coastal Areas ...

Full title: "Hands-on Hypoxia: Engaging High School Educators in the science behind Marine Microbial Dynamics in Hypoxic Coastal Areas Through Field and Classroom Experiences"

Abstract.

"The University of Southern California’s (USC) Joint Educational Project’s STEM Education Programs hosted a three-day summer workshop focused on marine microbiology and coastal deoxygenation for high school educators. To increase ocean literacy in high school students from Title I schools, topical marine science research was translated into four lesson plans appropriate for classrooms that teach biology and environmental science. [...]".

 

Source: Current Journal
Authors: Kyla J. Kelly et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/cjme.86

Read the full article here.

 


Development of a high-resolution marine ecosystem model for predicting the combined impacts of ocean acidification and deoxygenation

Abstract.

"An approach was developed to help evaluate and predict the combined effects of ocean acidification and deoxygenation on calcifying organisms along the coast of Japan. The Coastal and Regional Ocean COmmunity (CROCO) modeling system was set up to couple the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to the Pelagic Interaction Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies (PISCES) biogeochemical model and used to reproduce physical and biochemical processes in the area around Miyako Bay, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Lawrence Patrick C. Bernardo et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1174892

Read the full article here.


Ocean Oxygen: the role of the Ocean in the oxygen we breathe and the threat of deoxygenation

Abstract.

"EMB Future Science Brief No. 10 highlights the most recent science on Ocean oxygen, including causes, impacts and mitigation strategies of Ocean oxygen loss, and discusses whether “every second breath we take comes from the Ocean”. It closes with key policy, management and research recommendations to address Ocean deoxygenation and communicate more accurately about the role of the Ocean in Earth’s oxygen. 
The sentence “every second breath you take comes from the Ocean” is commonly used in Ocean Literacy and science communication to highlight the importance of Ocean oxygen. [...]".

 

Source: European Marine Board
Authors: Marilaure Grégoire et al.
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7941157

Read the full article here.


Decreasing O2 availability reduces cellular protein contents in a marine diatom

Abstract.

"Anthropogenic activities and climate change are exacerbating marine deoxygenation. Apart from aerobic organisms, reduced O2 also affects photoautotrophic organisms in the ocean. This is because without available O2, these O2 producers cannot maintain their mitochondrial respiration, especially under dim-light or dark conditions, which may disrupt the metabolism of macromolecules including proteins. We used growth rate, particle organic nitrogen and protein analyses, proteomics, and transcriptomics to determine cellular nitrogen metabolism of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana grown under three O2 levels in a range of light intensities [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Bokun Chen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.164032

Read the full article here.


The response of nitrogen and sulfur cycles to ocean deoxygenation across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary

Abstract.

"The Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) is a greenhouse episode of severe marine anoxia at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. This time interval is characterized by rising sea surface temperature, enhanced marine biological productivity, and widespread occurrence of organic-rich black shales. With an export of biological production to the deep ocean, organisms consume vast amounts of oxygen and subsequently utilize nitrate and sulfate as electron acceptors in organic matter degradation, thereby affecting biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and sulfur. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Ruixiang Zhai et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104182

Read the full article here.


Indian Ocean glacial deoxygenation and respired carbon accumulation during mid-late Quaternary ice ages

Abstract.

"Reconstructions of ocean oxygenation are critical for understanding the role of respired carbon storage in regulating atmospheric CO2. Independent sediment redox proxies are essential to assess such reconstructions. Here, we present a long magnetofossil record from the eastern Indian Ocean in which we observe coeval magnetic hardening and enrichment of larger, more elongated, and less oxidized magnetofossils during glacials compared to interglacials over the last ~900 ka. Our multi-proxy records of redox-sensitive magnetofossils, trace element concentrations, and benthic foraminiferal Δδ13C consistently suggest a recurrence of lower O2 [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Liao Chang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-40452-1

Read the full article here.


Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last millennium

Abstract.

"Over the last 1,000 years, changing climate strongly influenced the ecosystem of coastal oceans such as the Baltic Sea. Sedimentary records revealed that changing temperatures could be linked to changing oxygen levels, spreading anoxic, oxygen-free areas in the Baltic Sea. However, the attribution of changing oxygen levels remains to be challenging. This work simulates a preindustrial period of 850 years, covering the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model. [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Florian Börgel et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1174039

Read the full article here.


Role of climate variability on deep-water dynamics and deoxygenation during sapropel deposition ...

Full title: "Role of climate variability on deep-water dynamics and deoxygenation during sapropel deposition: New insights from a palaeoceanographic empirical approach"

Abstract.

"Modern marine settings are experiencing rapid deoxygenation mainly forced by global warming and anthropogenic eutrophication. Therefore, studies that assess the role of climate variability in large spatiotemporal deoxygenations during past climate changes are needed to better comprehend the consequences of the current global warming and ocean deoxygenation. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Ricardo D. Monedero-Contreras et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111601

Read the full article here.


A Selected Review of Impacts of Ocean Deoxygenation on Fish and Fisheries

Abstract.

"Oxygen is crucial for the survival of marine species. Yet, the ocean has experienced a loss of approximately 2% of its oxygen inventory since the last century, resulting in adverse impacts on marine life and ecosystems. In particular, changes in the gap between the supply and demand for dissolved oxygen lead to physiological and ecological variations, which cause alterations in habitats and food webs for fish and ecosystem services. These changes vary over time and by region, and the heterogeneous characteristics of marine species bring about non-linear consequences to human society. [...]".

 

Source: MDPI
Authors: Hongsik Kim et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8060316

Read the full article here. 


Impact of deoxygenation and warming on global marine species in the 21st century

Abstract.

"Ocean temperature and dissolved oxygen shape marine habitats in an interplay with species' physiological characteristics. Therefore, the observed and projected warming and deoxygenation of the world's oceans in the 21st century may strongly affect species' habitats. Here, we implement an extended version of the Aerobic Growth Index (AGI), which quantifies whether a viable population of a species can be sustained in a particular location. We assess the impact of projected deoxygenation and warming on the contemporary habitat of 47 representative marine species covering the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and demersal realms. [...]".

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Anne L. Morée et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-20-2425-2023

Read the full article here.


Recent Deoxygenation of Patagonian Fjord Subsurface Waters Connected to the Peru–Chile Undercurrent and Equatorial Subsurface Water Variability

Abstract.

"In recent decades, global dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements have registered a decrease of ∼1%–2% in oxygen content, raising concerns regarding the negative impacts of ocean deoxygenation on marine life and the greenhouse gas cycle. By combining in situ data from 2016 to 2022, satellite remote sensing, and outputs from a physical-biogeochemical model, we revealed the deoxygenation process in the Patagonian fjords for the first time. Deoxygenation was associated with the advection of equatorial subsurface water (ESSW) mass into the northern region of Patagonia. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Pamela Linford et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GB007688

Read the full article here.


Acute hypoxia induces reduction of algal symbiont density and suppression of energy metabolism in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis

Abstract. 

"Loss of oxygen in the ocean is accelerating and threatening the coral reef ecosystem. In this study, the impacts of hypoxia on the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis were explored. The algal symbiont density, chlorophyll a + c2 content, energy consumption of corals, as well as energy available and consumption of their symbionts, decreased significantly post hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the malondialdehyde contents in corals and symbionts, together with the caspase-3 activation level in corals, increased significantly in response to hypoxia stress. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Kaidian Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.114897

Read the full article here.


Do phytoplankton require oxygen to survive? A hypothesis and model synthesis from oxygen minimum zones

Abstract. 

"It is commonly known that phytoplankton have a pivotal role in marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems as carbon fixers and oxygen producers, but their response to deoxygenation has scarcely been studied. Nonetheless, in the major oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), all surface phytoplankton groups, regardless of size, disappear and are replaced by unique cyanobacteria lineages below the oxycline. To develop reasonable hypotheses to explain this pattern, we conduct a review of available information on OMZ phytoplankton, and we re-analyze previously published data (flow cytometric and hydrographic) [...]". 

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Jane C. Y. Wong et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.12367

Read the full article here.


Impacts of Deoxygenation and Hypoxia on Shark Embryos Anti-Predator Behavior and Oxidative Stress

Abstract. 

"Climate change is leading to the loss of oxygen content in the oceans and endangering the survival of many marine species. Due to sea surface temperature warming and changing circulation, the ocean has become more stratified and is consequently losing its oxygen content. Oviparous elasmobranchs are particularly vulnerable as they lay their eggs in coastal and shallow areas, where they experience significant oscillations in oxygen levels. Here, we investigated the effects of deoxygenation (93% air saturation) and hypoxia (26% air saturation) during a short-term period (six days) on the anti-predator avoidance behavior and physiology [...]".

 

Source: MDPI
Authors: Jaquelino Varela et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12040577

Read the full article here.


Manganous water column in the Tethys Ocean during the Permian-Triassic transition

Abstract. 

"Ocean anoxia was one of the key killing mechanisms responsible for the end-Permian mass extinction (∼252 Ma). However, the temporal evolution and the triggering mechanisms of the end-Permian anoxia are controversial, with the current view being that the water column deoxygenation was a spatially and temporally heterogeneous event. Here, we use cerium-anomalies, uranium contents and rare earth element and yttrium (REY) compositions measured on the carbonate fraction of samples from two marine sections in Armenia and South China to constrain the evolution of end-Permian marine anoxia. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Johann Müller et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104067 

Read the full article here.


Frontiers in Marine Science special issue on ocean deoxygenation: Call for papers closing tomorrow

Call for paper manuscripts closing tomorrow

This is a quick reminder that the call for paper manuscripts for a special issue on "Constraining Uncertainties in Hindcasts and Future Projections of Marine Deoxygenation" in Frontiers in Marine Science ends tomorrow, 7 April 2023. 

Further informationhttps://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/24190/constraining-uncertainties-in-hindcasts-and-future-projections-of-marine-deoxygenation


Aquatic Productivity under Multiple Stressors

Abstract. 

"Aquatic ecosystems are responsible for about 50% of global productivity. They mitigate climate change by taking up a substantial fraction of anthropogenically emitted CO2 and sink part of it into the deep ocean. Productivity is controlled by a number of environmental factors, such as water temperature, ocean acidification, nutrient availability, deoxygenation and exposure to solar UV radiation. Recent studies have revealed that these factors may interact to yield additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects. While ocean warming and deoxygenation are supposed to affect mitochondrial respiration oppositely [...]".

 

Source: MDPI
Authors: Donat-P. Häder & Kunshan Gao
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040817

Read the full article here.


Editorial: Regional coastal deoxygenation and related ecological and biogeochemical modifications in a warming climate

Abstract. 

"Coastal ecosystems play tremendous roles in socio-economic development, but their functions are degrading due to human activities. One of the most alarming degradations is coastal deoxygenation, driven primarily by the over-enrichment of anthropogenic nutrients and organic matter (eutrophication) in the coastal waters. The coastal deoxygenation has led to the worldwide spread of hypoxic zones (where dissolved oxygen concentration is less than 2 mg/L), with the number of reported hypoxic sites increasing from 45 in the 1960s to around 700 nowadays. Besides being perturbed by human activities locally, coastal waters respond more rapidly than [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers 
Authors: Wenxia Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1146877

Read the full article here.


Warming, Acidification and Deoxygenation of the Ocean

Abstract. 

"The ocean plays an essential role in regulating Earth’s climate. The ocean provides many services, but two crucial ones are its ability to take up heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and cycle both around the world in its vast currents, as well as store them away long term. The ocean is changing rapidly and often unnoticed by the general public. However, as the effects of climate change become more prevalent on the ocean, we will start to see a direct impact on human society. This chapter discusses three main climate change effects on the ocean: ocean warming, acidification, and loss of oxygen. [...]".

 

Source: Springer Nature
Authors: Helen S. Findlay
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-10812-9_2

Read the full article here.


Frontiers in Marine Science special issue on ocean deoxygenation: Call for papers

Call for paper manuscripts

We would like to draw your attention to a call for paper manuscripts for a special issue on "Constraining Uncertainties in Hindcasts and Future Projections of Marine Deoxygenation" in Frontiers in Marine Science.

The paper manuscript submission deadline is 7 April 2023.

Further informationhttps://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/24190/constraining-uncertainties-in-hindcasts-and-future-projections-of-marine-deoxygenation


Marine bioturbation collapse during Early Jurassic deoxygenation: implications for post-extinction marine ecosystem functioning

Abstract. 

"Climate change is undermining the health and integrity of seafloor ecosystems, with declines in bioturbation expected to impact future ecosystem functioning. We explored changes in the nature and degree of bioturbation during Early Jurassic global warming and ocean deoxygenation. Understanding how these communities responded can help anticipate how bioturbation and ecosystem functioning might change over large spatial and temporal scales. Trace and body fossils from outcrop and core in the Cleveland Basin, UK show how healthy seafloor communities deteriorated through the Pliensbachian spinatum Zone, and macroinfaunal behaviour [...]".

 

Source: Geological Society of London
Authors: Bryony A. Caswell & Liam Herringshaw
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/SP529-2022-226

Read the full article here.


Sedimentary molybdenum and uranium: Improving proxies for deoxygenation in coastal depositional environments

Abstract. 

"Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) enrichments are widely used to reconstruct changes in bottom water oxygen conditions in aquatic environments. Until now, most studies using Mo and U have focused on restricted suboxic-euxinic basins and continental margin oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), leaving mildly reducing and oxic (but eutrophic) coastal depositional environments vastly understudied. Currently, it is unknown: (1) to what extent Mo and U enrichment factors (Mo- and U-EFs) can accurately reconstruct oxygen conditions in coastal sites experiencing mild deoxygenation, and (2) to what degree secondary [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: K. Mareike Paul et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2022.121203

Read the full article here.


Offshore wind farms are projected to impact primary production and bottom water deoxygenation in the North Sea

Abstract. 

"The wind wake effect of offshore wind farms affects the hydrodynamical conditions in the ocean, which has been hypothesized to impact marine primary production. So far only little is known about the ecosystem response to wind wakes under the premisses of large offshore wind farm clusters. Here we show, via numerical modeling, that the associated wind wakes in the North Sea provoke large-scale changes in annual primary production with local changes of up to ±10% not only at the offshore wind farm clusters, but also distributed over a wider region. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Ute Daewel et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00625-0 

Read the full article here.


Recovery from microplastic-induced marine deoxygenation may take centuries

Abstract.

"Climate change and plastics pollution are dual threats to marine environments. Here we use biogeochemical and microplastic modelling to show that even if there is complete removal of microplastics and cessation of deposition in the oceans in 2022, regional recovery from microplastic-induced remineralization and water column deoxygenation could take hundreds of years for coastal upwelling zones, the North Pacific and Southern Ocean. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Karin Kvale & Andreas Oschlies
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-01096-w 

Read the full article here.


Diverging Fates of the Pacific Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone and Its Core in a Warming World

Abstract. 

"Global ocean oxygen loss is projected to persist in the future, but Earth system models (ESMs) have not yet provided a consistent picture of how it will influence the largest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the tropical Pacific. We examine the change in the Pacific OMZ volume in an ensemble of ESMs from the CMIP6 archive, considering a broad range of oxygen (O2) thresholds relevant to biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems (5–160 µmol/kg). Despite OMZ biases in the historical period of the simulations, the ESM ensemble projections consistently fall into three regimes across ESMs […]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Julius J.M. Busecke et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021AV000470

Read the full article here.


Oxygen and irradiance constraints on visual habitat in a changing ocean: The luminoxyscape

Abstract. 

"Changing oxygen conditions are altering the distribution of many marine animals. Zooplankton vertical distributions are primarily attributed to physiological tolerance and/or avoidance of visual predation. Recent findings reveal that visual function in marine larvae is highly sensitive to oxygen availability, but it is unknown how oxygen, which affects light sensitivity and generates limits for vision, may affect the distribution of animals that rely heavily on this sensory modality. This study introduces the concept of a “visual luminoxyscape” to demonstrate how combinations of limiting oxygen and light could constrain the habitat of marine larvae with oxygen-demanding vision. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Lillian R. McCormick et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/lol2.10296

Read the full article here.


Volcanic trigger of ocean deoxygenation during Cordilleran ice sheet retreat

Abstract. 

"North Pacific deoxygenation events during the last deglaciation were sustained over millennia by high export productivity, but the triggering mechanisms and their links to deglacial warming remain uncertain. Here we find that initial deoxygenation in the North Pacific immediately after the Cordilleran ice sheet (CIS) retreat was associated with increased volcanic ash in seafloor sediments. Timing of volcanic inputs relative to CIS retreat suggests that regional explosive volcanism was initiated by ice unloading. […]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Jianghui Du et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05267-y

Read the full article here.


Investigating ocean deoxygenation and the oxygen minimum zone in the Central Indo Pacific region based on the hindcast datasets

Abstract. 

"Deoxygenation is increasingly recognized as a significant environmental threat to the ocean following sea temperature rises due to global warming and climate change. Considering the cruciality of the deoxygenation impacts, it is important to assess the current status and predict the future possibility of ocean deoxygenation, for instance, within the Central Indo Pacific (CIP) regions represent climate-regulated marine areas. This study divided CIP into five regions then investigated the deoxygenation parameters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, and pH) collected from 1993 to 2021 sourced from in situ measurement and long-term hindcast data. [...]".

 

Source: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Authors: Karlina Triana et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10615-6

Read the full article here.


Seasonal nearshore ocean acidification and deoxygenation in the Southern California Bight

Abstract. 

"The California Current System experiences seasonal ocean acidification and hypoxia (OAH) owing to wind-driven upwelling, but little is known about the intensity, frequency, and depth distribution of OAH in the shallow nearshore environment. Here we present observations of OAH and dissolved inorganic carbon and nutrient parameters based on monthly transects from March 2017 to September 2018 extending from the surf zone to the ~ 40 m depth contour in La Jolla, California. Biologically concerning OAH conditions were observed at depths as shallow as 10 m and as close as 700 m to the shoreline. [...]".

 

Source: Scientific Reports
Authors: Samuel A. H. Kekuewa et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-21831-y

Read the full article here.


Physical-chemical factors influencing the vertical distribution of phototrophic pico-nanoplankton in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Northern Chile

Abstract. 

"The vertical distribution of phytoplankton is of fundamental importance in the structure, dynamic, and biogeochemical pathways in marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, what are the main factors determining this distribution remains as an open question. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of environmental factors that might control the coexistence and vertical distribution of pico-nanoplankton associated with the OMZ off northern Chile. Our results showed that in the upper layer Synechococcus-like cells were numerically important at all sampling stations. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Edson Piscoya et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2022.105710

Read the full article here.


A double-edged sword: The role of sulfate in anoxic marine phosphorus cycling through Earth history

Abstract. 

"Modern anoxic marine sediments release phosphorus (P) to seawater, driving feedbacks at multiple timescales. On sub-Myr timescales, anoxic P regeneration amplifies ocean deoxygenation; on multi-Myr timescales, it stabilizes atmospheric O2. Some authors have extended this thinking to the Precambrian: by analogy, widespread ocean anoxia would imply extensive P regeneration from sediments. However, this neglects the role of sulfate in P regeneration. [...]".

 

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Michael A. Kipp
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL099817

Read the full article here.


A Depth-Transect of Ocean Deoxygenation During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: Magnetofossils in Sediment Cores From the Southeast Atlantic

Abstract. 

"The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma) presents a past analog for future global warming. Previous studies provided evidence for major loss of dissolved oxygen during the PETM, although understanding the degree and distribution of oxygen loss poses challenges. Magnetofossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria are sensitive to redox conditions in sediments and water columns, and have been used to reconstruct paleoredox conditions over a range of geological settings. [...]".

 

Source: JGR Solid Earth
Authors: Pengfei Xue et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JB024714

Read the full article here.


Ocean biogeochemical modelling

Abstract. 

"Ocean biogeochemical models describe the ocean’s circulation, physical properties, biogeochemical properties and their transformations using coupled differential equations. Numerically approximating these equations enables simulation of the dynamic evolution of the ocean state in realistic global or regional spatial domains, across time spans from years to centuries. This Primer explains the process of model construction and the main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different model types, from the simplest nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus model to the complex biogeochemical models used in Earth system modelling and climate prediction. [...]".

 

Source: Nature Reviews Methods Primers 
Authors: Katja Fennel et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43586-022-00154-2 

Read the full article here.


Impact of warming and deoxygenation on the habitat distribution of Pacific halibut in the Northeast Pacific

Abstract. 

"Ocean warming and deoxygenation are already modifying the habitats of many aerobic organisms. Benthic habitat in the Northeast Pacific is sensitive to deoxygenation, as low oxygen concentrations occur naturally in continental shelf bottom waters. Here, we examine the potential impacts of deoxygenation and ocean warming on the habitat distribution of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), one of the most commercially important groundfish in North America. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library  
Authors: Ana C. Franco et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12610

Read the full article here.


Ventilation changes drive orbital-scale deoxygenation trends in the late Cretaceous ocean

Abstract. 

"Mechanisms that drive cyclicity in marine sediment deposits during hothouse climate periods in response to Earth’s orbit variations remain debated. Orbital cycles fingerprint in the oceanographic records results from the combined effect of terrestrial (e.g. weathering-derived nutrient supply, freshwater discharge) and oceanic (e.g. productivity, oxygenation) processes, whose respective contribution remains to be clarified. [...]".

 

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Anta-Clarisse Sarr et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL099830

Read the full article here.


Uranium isotope reconstruction of ocean deoxygenation during OAE 2 hampered by uncertainties in fractionation factors and local U-cycling

Abstract. 

"A δ238U record of changing ocean anoxia during OAE 2 is reconstructed using seawater derived U in pelagic marine sediments in the Portland #1 core in the south-central region of the Western Interior Seaway of North America. The peak negative excursion of 1.4‰ in authigenic sedimentary δ238U values is consistent with expansion of marine anoxia during the event, but the size of the shift is much larger than the negative excursions recorded in two other published records. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Brayden S. McDonald et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2022.05.010

Read the full article here.


Geochemical evidence from the Kioto Carbonate Platform (Tibet) reveals enhanced terrigenous input and deoxygenation during the early Toarcian

Abstract.

"The early Toarcian, as registered in a variety of sedimentary archives, was characterized by an abrupt negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) typically superimposed on a long-term positive trend, and was accompanied by significant climatic and environmental changes. However, the changes in continental weathering influx and oceanic deoxygenation in shallow waters and their possible role in causing carbonate-platform crises in low latitudes remains poorly constrained. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Zhong Han et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103887

Read the full article here.


Quantifying the Contribution of Ocean Mesoscale Eddies to Low Oxygen Extreme Events

Abstract.

"Ocean mesoscale eddies have been identified as drivers of localized extremely low dissolved oxygen concentration ([O2]) conditions in the subsurface. We employ a global physical-biogeochemical ocean model at eddy-permitting resolution to conduct a census of open-ocean eddies near Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems adjacent to tropical Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs). We track cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies with a surface signature over the period 1992–2018 and isolate their subsurface oxygen characteristics. We identify strongly deoxygenating eddies and quantify their contribution to low [O2] extreme events. [...]".

 

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Jamie Atkins et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL098672

Read the full article here.


Mercury stable isotopes suggest reduced foraging depth in oxygen minimum zones for blue sharks

Abstract. 

"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are currently expanding across the global ocean due to climate change, leading to a compression of usable habitat for several marine species. Mercury stable isotope compositions provide a spatially and temporally integrated view of marine predator foraging habitat and its variability with environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed mercury isotopes in blue sharks Prionace glauca from normoxic waters in the northeastern Atlantic and from the world's largest and shallowest OMZ, located in the northeastern Pacific (NEP). [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Gaël Le Croizier et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113892

Read the full article here.


Oxygen availability driven trends in DOM molecular composition and reactivity in a seasonally stratified fjord

Abstract. 

"Ocean deoxygenation could potentially trigger substantial changes in the composition and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool, which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. To evaluate links between DOM dynamics and oxygen availability, we investigated the DOM composition under varying levels of oxygen in a seasonally hypoxic fjord through a monthly time-series over two years. We used ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to characterize DOM on a molecular level. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Xiao Chen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.118690

Read the full article here.


Enhanced phosphorus recycling during past oceanic anoxia amplified by low rates of apatite authigenesis

Abstract.

"Enhanced recycling of phosphorus as ocean deoxygenation expanded under past greenhouse climates contributed to widespread organic carbon burial and drawdown of atmospheric CO2. Redox-dependent phosphorus recycling was more efficient in such ancient anoxic marine environments, compared to modern anoxic settings, for reasons that remain unclear. Here, we show that low rates of apatite authigenesis in organic-rich sediments can explain the amplified phosphorus recycling in ancient settings as reflected in highly elevated ratios of organic carbon to total phosphorus. [...]".

 

Source: Science Advances 
Authors: Nina M. Papadomanolaki et al.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abn2370

Read the full article here.


Biotic induction and microbial ecological dynamics of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

Abstract. 

"Understanding the causal mechanisms of past marine deoxygenation is critical to predicting the long-term Earth systems response to climate change. However, the processes and events preceding widespread carbon burial coincident with oceanic anoxic events remain poorly constrained. Here, we report a comprehensive biomarker inventory enveloping Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 that captures microbial communities spanning epipelagic to benthic environments in the southern proto-North Atlantic Ocean. We identify an abrupt, sustained increase in primary productivity that predates Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 by ∼220 ± 4 thousand years, well before other geochemical proxies register biogeochemical perturbations. [...]". 

 

Source: Communications Earth & Environment 
Authors: Gregory T. Connock et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00466-x 

Read the full article here.


Trace elements V, Ni, Mo and U: A geochemical tool to quantify dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxygen minimum zone of the north-eastern Pacific

Abstract.

"Deoxygenation of the water column in the oceans and in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) has become relevant due to its connection with global climate change. The variability of the OMZ has been inferred by in situ measurements for the last 70 years and qualitatively assessed through the monitoring of trace elements and the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) of organic matter on several time scales. The V, Ni, Mo and U concentrations in surface sediments and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water column of La Paz Bay and the Mazatlán margin were used to propose an exponential regression model. This model will allow the inference of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the sedimentary records from the Alfonso Basin in La Paz Bay and in the Mazatlán margin over the last 250 years. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Alberto Sánchez et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2022.103732

Read the full article here.


Widespread oxyregulation in tropical corals under hypoxia

Abstract. 

"Hypoxia (low oxygen stress) is increasingly reported on coral reefs, caused by ocean deoxygenation linked to coastal nutrient pollution and ocean warming. While the ability to regulate respiration is a key driver of hypoxia tolerance in many other aquatic taxa, corals' oxyregulatory capabilities remain virtually unexplored. Here, we examine O2-consumption patterns across 17 coral species under declining O2partial pressure (pO2). All corals showed ability to oxyregulate, but total positive regulation (Tpos) varied between species, ranging from 0.41 (Pocillopora damicornis) to 2.42 (P. acuta). [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: David J. Hughes et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113722

Read the full article here.


Sensitivity of Global Ocean Deoxygenation to Vertical and Isopycnal Mixing in an Ocean Biogeochemistry Model

Abstract. 

"Large-scale loss of oxygen under global warming is termed “ocean deoxygenation” and is caused by the imbalance between physical supply and biological consumption of oxygen in the ocean interior. Significant progress has been made in the theoretical understanding of ocean deoxygenation; however, many questions remain unresolved. The oxygen change in the tropical thermocline is poorly understood, with diverging projections among different models. Physical oxygen supply is controlled by a suite of processes that transport oxygen-rich surface waters into the interior ocean, which is expected to weaken due to increasing stratification under global warming. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library

Authors: Taka Ito et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GB007151

Read the full article here.


Shallow ocean oxygen decline during the end-Triassic mass extinction

Abstract.

"The end-Triassic mass extinction (ETME) was associated with intensified deep-water anoxia in epicontinental seas and mid-depth waters, yet the absolute oxygenation state in the shallow ocean is uncharacterized. Here we report carbonate-associated iodine data from the peritidal Mount Sparagio section (Southern Italy) that documents the ETME (~ 200 Ma) in the western Tethys. We find a sharp drop in carbonate I/(Ca + Mg) ratios across the extinction horizon and persisting into the Early Jurassic. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Tianchen He et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103770

Read the full article here. 


Biogeochemical feedbacks may amplify ongoing and future ocean deoxygenation: a case study from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

Abstract.

"A new box model is employed to simulate the oxygen-dependent cycling of nutrients in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Model results and data for the present state of the OMZ indicate that dissolved iron is the limiting nutrient for primary production and is provided by the release of dissolved ferrous iron from shelf and slope sediments. Most of the removal of reactive nitrogen occurs by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium where ammonium is delivered by aerobic organic nitrogen degradation. Model experiments simulating the effects of ocean deoxygenation and warming show that the productivity of the Peruvian OMZ will increase due to the enhanced release of dissolved iron from shelf and slope sediments. A positive feedback loop rooted in the oxygen-dependent benthic iron release amplifies, both, the productivity rise and oxygen decline in ambient bottom waters. [...]". 

 

Source: Biogeochemistry

Authors: Klaus Wallmann et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-022-00908-w 

Read the full article here.


Adaptive strategies of sponges to deoxygenated oceans

Abstract.

"Ocean deoxygenation is one of the major consequences of climate change. In coastal waters, this process can be exacerbated by eutrophication, which is contributing to an alarming increase in the so-called ‘dead zones’ globally. Despite its severity, the effect of reduced dissolved oxygen has only been studied for a very limited number of organisms, compared to other climate change impacts such as ocean acidification and warming. Here, we experimentally assessed the response of sponges to moderate[...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library 
Authors: Valerio Micaroni et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16013

Read the full article here.


Rapid ecosystem-scale consequences of acute deoxygenation on a Caribbean coral reef

Abstract.

"Loss of oxygen in the global ocean is accelerating due to climate change and eutrophication, but how acute deoxygenation events affect tropical marine ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we integrate analyses of coral reef benthic communities with microbial community sequencing to show how a deoxygenation event rapidly altered benthic community composition and microbial assemblages in a shallow tropical reef ecosystem. Conditions associated with the event precipitated coral bleaching and mass mortality, causing a 50% loss of live coral and a shift in the benthic community that persisted a year later. Conversely, the unique taxonomic and functional profile of hypoxia-associated microbes rapidly reverted to a normoxic assemblage[...]".

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Maggie D. Johnson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24777-3

Read the full article here.


A committed fourfold increase in ocean oxygen loss

Abstract.

"Less than a quarter of ocean deoxygenation that will ultimately be caused by historical CO2 emissions is already realized, according to millennial-scale model simulations that assume zero CO2 emissions from year 2021 onwards. About 80% of the committed oxygen loss occurs below 2000 m depth, where a more sluggish overturning circulation will increase water residence times and accumulation of respiratory oxygen demand. According to the model results, the deep ocean will thereby lose more than 10% of its pre-industrial oxygen content even if CO2 emissions and thus global warming[...]".

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Andreas Oschlies
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22584-4 

Read the full article here.


Shallow marine ecosystem collapse and recovery during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

Abstract.

"The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the most well-studied transient hyperthermal event in Earth history, is characterized by prominent and dynamic changes in global marine ecosystems. Understanding such biotic responses provides valuable insights into future scenarios in the face of anthropogenic warming. However, evidence of the PETM biotic responses is largely biased towards deep-sea records, whereas shallow-marine evidence remains scarce and elusive. Here we investigate a shallow-marine microfaunal record from Maryland, eastern United States, to comprehensively document the shallow-marine biotic response to the PETM. We applied birth-death modeling to estimate the local diversity dynamics[...]"

 

Source: Elsevier
Authors: Skye Yunshu Tian  et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103649

Read the full article here.


Deoxygenation in Marginal Seas of the Indian Ocean

Abstract.

"This article describes oxygen distributions and recent deoxygenation trends in three marginal seas – Persian Gulf and Red Sea in the Northwestern Indian Ocean (NWIO) and Andaman Sea in the Northeastern Indian Ocean (NEIO). Vertically mixed water column in the shallow Persian Gulf is generally well-oxygenated, especially in winter. Biogeochemistry and ecosystems of Persian Gulf are being subjected to enormous anthropogenic stresses including large loading of nutrients and organic matter, enhancing oxygen demand and causing hypoxia (oxygen < 1.4 ml l–1) in central and southern Gulf in summer. The larger and deeper Red Sea is relatively less affected by human[...]"

 

Source: Frontiers
Authors: S. Wajih A. Naqvi
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.624322


Deoxygenation impacts on Baltic Sea cod: Dramatic declines in ecosystem services of an iconic keystone predator

Abstract.

"The intensified expansion of the Baltic Sea’s hypoxic zone has been proposed as one reason for the current poor status of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, with repercussions throughout the food web and on ecosystem services. We examined the links between increased hypoxic areas and the decline in maximum length of Baltic cod, a demographic proxy for services[...]"

 

Source: Ambio
Authors: Alessandro Orio et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-021-01572-4

Read the full article here.


A committed fourfold increase in ocean oxygen loss

Abstract.

"Less than a quarter of ocean deoxygenation that will ultimately be caused by historical CO2 emissions is already realized, according to millennial-scale model simulations that assume zero CO2 emissions from year 2021 onwards. About 80% of the committed oxygen loss occurs below 2000 m depth, where a more sluggish overturning circulation will increase water residence times and accumulation of respiratory oxygen demand. According to the model results, the deep ocean will thereby lose more than 10% of its pre-industrial oxygen content even if CO2 emissions and thus global warming[...]"

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Andreas Oschlies 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22584-4

Read the full article here.


Glacial deep ocean deoxygenation driven by biologically mediated air–sea disequilibrium

Abstract.

"Deep ocean deoxygenation inferred from proxies has been used to support the hypothesis that a lower atmospheric carbon dioxide during glacial times was due to an increase in the strength of the ocean’s biological pump. This relies on the assumption that surface ocean oxygen (O2) is equilibrated with the atmosphere such that any O2 deficiency observed in deep waters is a result of organic matter respiration, which consumes O2 and produces dissolved inorganic carbon. However, this assumption has been shown to be imperfect because of disequilibrium. Here we used an Earth system[...]"

 

Source: Nature Geoscience 
Authors: Ellen Cliff et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-00667-z

Read the full article here.


New Webinar Series on Ocean Deoxygenation

Do you want to know more about deoxygenation in the ocean?
Join us for the upcoming webinar!

Wednesday, 9th December 2020, 15:00 h – 16:00 h CET

The Global Ocean Oxygen Network (IOC Expert Working Group GO2NE) starts a new series on ocean deoxygenation. The second webinar will take place 9 December 2020. The speakers will present latest science on the impacts of reduced oxygen in the open ocean and coastal zones. Each webinar will feature two presentations by a more senior and an earlier-career scientist, 20 minutes each followed by 10 minutes moderated discussion sessions.

to register please click here.


New Webinar Series on Ocean Deoxygenation

New Webinar Series on Ocean Deoxygenation
Do you want to know more about deoxygenation in the ocean?
Join us for the upcoming webinar!

The Global Ocean Oxygen Network (IOC Expert Working Group GO2NE) starts a new series on ocean deoxygenation. The first webinar will take place 11 November 2020. The speakers will present latest science on the impacts of reduced oxygen in the open ocean and coastal zones. Each webinar will feature two presentations by a more senior and an earlier-career scientist, 20 minutes each followed by 10 minutes moderated discussion sessions.

When? Wednesday, 11th November 2020, 14:00 h – 15:00 h CET

To register please click here.


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