The poleward enhanced Arctic Ocean cooling machine in a warming climate
"As a cooling machine of the Arctic Ocean, the Barents Sea releases most of the incoming ocean heat originating from the North Atlantic. The related air-sea heat exchange plays a crucial role in both regulating the climate and determining the deep circulation in the Arctic Ocean and beyond. It was reported that the cooling efficiency of this cooling machine has decreased significantly. In this study, we find that the overall cooling efficiency did not really drop: When the cooling efficiency decreased in the southern Barents Sea[...]"
Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Qi Shu et al.
Global patterns for the spatial distribution of floating microfibers: Arctic Ocean as a potential accumulation zone
"Despite their representativeness, most studies to date have underestimated the amount of microfibers (MFs) in the marine environment. Therefore, further research is still necessary to identify key processes governing MF distribution. Here, the interaction among surface water temperature, salinity, currents and winds explained the patterns of MF accumulation. The estimated density of floating MFs is ∼5900 ± 6800 items m−3 in the global ocean; and three patterns of accumulation were predicted by the proposed[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: André R.A.Lima et al.
Clouds and Radiation Processes in Regional Climate Models Evaluated Using Observations Over the Ice‐free Arctic Ocean
"The presence of clouds in the Arctic regulates the surface energy budget (SEB) over the sea‐ice surface and the ice‐free ocean. Following several previous field campaigns, the cloud‐radiation relationship, including cloud vertical structure and phase, has been elucidated; however, modeling of this relationship has matured slowly. In recognition of the recent decline in the Arctic sea‐ice extent, representation of the cloud system in numerical models should consider the effects of areas covered by sea ice and ice‐free areas. Using an in situ stationary meteorological observation[...]"
Source: AGU- Advancing Earth And Space Science
Authors: Jun Inoue et al.
Pervasive distribution of polyester fibres in the Arctic Ocean is driven by Atlantic inputs
"Microplastics are increasingly recognized as ubiquitous global contaminants, but questions linger regarding their source, transport and fate. We document the widespread distribution of microplastics in near-surface seawater from 71 stations across the European and North American Arctic - including the North Pole. We also characterize samples to a depth of 1,015 m in the Beaufort Sea. Particle abundance correlated with longitude, with almost three times more particles in the eastern Arctic compared to the west. Polyester comprised[...]"
Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Peter S. Ross et al.
Changes in phytoplankton concentration now drive increased Arctic Ocean primary production
"Historically, sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has promoted increased phytoplankton primary production because of the greater open water area and a longer growing season. However, debate remains about whether primary production will continue to rise should sea ice decline further. Using an ocean color algorithm parameterized for the Arctic Ocean, we show that primary production increased by 57% between 1998 and 2018. Surprisingly, whereas increases were due to widespread sea ice loss during the first decade[...]"
Source: American Association For The Advancement Of Science
Authors: K. M. Lewis et al.
Emergent constraint on Arctic Ocean acidification in the twenty-first century
"The ongoing uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean leads to ocean acidification, a process that results in a reduction in pH and in the saturation state of biogenic calcium carbonate minerals aragonite (Ωarag) and calcite (Ωcalc). Because of its naturally low Ωarag and Ωcalc (refs.), the Arctic Ocean is considered the region most susceptible to future acidification and associated ecosystem impacts. [...]"
Authors: Jens Terhaar et al.
Properties and dynamics of mesoscale-eddies in the Fram Strait from a comparison between two high-resolution ocean-sea ice models
"The Fram Strait, the deepest gateway to the Arctic Ocean, is strongly influenced by eddy dynamics. Here we analyse the output from two eddy-resolving models (ROMS and FESOM) with around 1 km mesh resolution in the Fram Strait, with focus on their representation of eddy properties and dynamics. A comparison with mooring observations shows that both models reasonably simulate hydrography and eddy kinetic energy. [...]"
Source: Ocean Science
Authors: Claudia Wekerle et al.
Discrepancy in the Identification of the Atlantic/Pacific Front in the Central Arctic Ocean: NO Versus Nutrient Relationships
"Fronts in the NO parameter, a semiconservative tracer combining nitrate and dissolved oxygen, and dynamic height were observed in the central East Siberian Sea that distinguished Atlantic and Pacific contributions to the upper halocline of the Amerasian Basin during the summer of 2015. [...]"
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Matthew B. Alkire, Robert Rember and Igor Polyakov
Autonomous biogeochemical floats detect significant carbon dioxide outgassing in the high‐latitude Southern Ocean
"Although the Southern Ocean is thought to account for a significant portion of the contemporary oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2), flux estimates in this region are based on sparse observations that are strongly biased towards summer. Here we present new estimates of Southern Ocean air‐sea CO2 fluxes calculated with measurements from biogeochemical profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project during 2014‐2017. Compared to ship‐based CO2 flux estimates, the float‐based fluxes find significantly stronger outgassing in the zone around Antarctica where carbon‐rich deep waters upwell to the surface ocean. [...]"
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Alison R. Gray et al.
Enhanced CO2 uptake at a shallow Arctic Ocean seep field overwhelms the positive warming potential of emitted methane
"Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 106 tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane released from the seafloor may reach the atmosphere and potentially amplify global warming. On the other hand, biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) has the potential to offset the positive warming potential of emitted methane, a process that has not received detailed consideration for these settings. Continuous sea−air gas flux data collected over a shallow ebullitive methane seep field on the Svalbard margin reveal atmospheric CO2 uptake rates (−33,300 ± 7,900 μmol m−2⋅d−1) twice that of surrounding waters and ∼1,900 times greater than the diffusive sea−air methane efflux (17.3 ± 4.8 μmol m−2⋅d−1). [...]"
Source: Proceedings of the Nathional Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)
Authors: John W. Pohlman et al.