Ammonium availability in the Late Archaean nitrogen cycle
"The bioavailability of essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus has fluctuated with the chemical evolution of Earth surface environments over geological timescales. However, significant uncertainty remains over the evolution of Earth’s early nitrogen cycle, particularly how and when it responded to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. [...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: J. Yang et al.
Periodic changes in the Cretaceous ocean and climate caused by marine redox see-saw
"Periodic changes in sediment composition are usually ascribed to insolation forcing controlled by Earth’s orbital parameters. During the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum at 97–91 Myr ago (Ma), a 37–50-kyr-long cycle that is generally believed to reflect obliquity forcing dominates the sediment record. [...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Klaus Wallmann et al.
Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic rise in island arc redox state due to deep ocean oxygenation and increased marine sulfate levels
"A rise in atmospheric O2 levels between 800 and 400 Ma is thought to have oxygenated the deep oceans, ushered in modern biogeochemical cycles, and led to the diversification of animals. Over the same time interval, marine sulfate concentrations are also thought to have increased to near-modern levels. We present compiled data that indicate Phanerozoic island arc igneous rocks are more oxidized (Fe3+/ΣFe ratios are elevated by 0.12) vs. Precambrian equivalents. [...]"
Authors: Daniel A. Stolper and Claire E. Bucholz
Nitrogen isotope evidence for expanded ocean suboxia in the early Cenozoic
"The million-year variability of the marine nitrogen cycle is poorly understood. Before 57 million years (Ma) ago, the 15N/14N ratio (δ15N) of foraminifera shell-bound organic matter from three sediment cores was high, indicating expanded water column suboxia and denitrification. [...]"
Authors: Emma R. Kast et al.
Proterozoic seawater sulfate scarcity and the evolution of ocean–atmosphere chemistry
"Oceanic sulfate concentrations are widely thought to have reached millimolar levels during the Proterozoic Eon, 2.5 to 0.54 billion years ago. Yet the magnitude of the increase in seawater sulfate concentrations over the course of the Eon remains largely unquantified. A rise in seawater sulfate concentrations has been inferred from the increased range of marine sulfide δ34S values following the Great Oxidation Event and was induced by two processes: enhanced oxidative weathering of sulfides on land, and the onset of marine sulfur redox cycling. [...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Mojtaba Fakhraee et al.
Limited oxygen production in the Mesoarchean ocean
"The Archean Eon was a time of predominantly anoxic Earth surface conditions, where anaerobic processes controlled bioessential element cycles. In contrast to “oxygen oases” well documented for the Neoarchean [2.8 to 2.5 billion years ago (Ga)], the magnitude, spatial extent, and underlying causes of possible Mesoarchean (3.2 to 2.8 Ga) surface-ocean oxygenation remain controversial. [...]"
Authors: Frantz Ossa Ossa et al.
Efficient recycling of nutrients in modern and past hypersaline environments
"The biogeochemistry of hypersaline environments is strongly influenced by changes in biological processes and physicochemical parameters. Although massive evaporation events have occurred repeatedly throughout Earth history, their biogeochemical cycles and global impact remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first nitrogen isotopic data for nutrients and chloropigments from modern shallow hypersaline environments (solar salterns, Trapani, Italy) and apply the obtained insights to δ15N signatures of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) in the late Miocene. [...]"
Source: Scientific Reports
Authors: Y. Isaji et al.
Enhanced North Pacific deep-ocean stratification by stronger intermediate water formation during Heinrich Stadial 1
"The deglacial history of CO2 release from the deep North Pacific remains unresolved. This is due to conflicting indications about subarctic Pacific ventilation changes based on various marine proxies, especially for Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS-1) when a rapid atmospheric CO2 rise occurs. Here, we use a complex Earth System Model to investigate the deglacial North Pacific overturning and its control on ocean stratification. [...]"
Source: Nature Communications
Authors: X. Gong et al.
Deep‐sea oxygen depletion and ocean carbon sequestration during the last ice age
"Enhanced ocean carbon storage during the Pleistocene ice ages lowered atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 80 to 100 ppm relative to interglacial levels. Leading hypotheses to explain this phenomenon invoke a greater efficiency of the ocean's biological pump, in which case carbon storage in the deep sea would have been accompanied by a corresponding reduction in dissolved oxygen. We exploit the sensitivity of organic matter preservation in marine sediments to bottom water oxygen concentration to constrain the level of dissolved oxygen in the deep central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last glacial period (18,000 – 28,000 years BP) to have been within the range of 20‐50 μmol/kg, much less than modern value of ca. 168 μmol/kg. [...]"
Source: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Authors: Robert F. Anderson et al.
Mid-Holocene deepening of the Southeast Pacific oxycline
"This study presents new high resolution sedimentary δ15N records from piston cores collected within and outside the present-day eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone along a latitudinal transect from 3.5°S to 15°S. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera and organic matter show that the cores cover the Holocene and the last deglaciation with high sedimentation rate allowing interpretations at millennial to centennial timescale. [...]"
Source: Global and Planetary Change
Authors: Elfi Mollier-Vogel et al.