Variability-based constraint on ocean primary production models
"Primary production (PP) is fundamental to ocean biogeochemistry, but challengingly variable. Satellite models are unique tools for investigating PP, but are difficult to compare and validate because of the scale separation between in situ and remote measurements, which also are rarely coincident. Here, I argue that satellite estimates should be log-skew-normally distributed, because of this scale separation and because PP measurements are log-normally distributed.[...]"
Source: ASLO- Association for the Sciences of the Limnology and Oceanography
Authors: B. B. Cael et al.
Developing achievable alternate futures for key challenges during the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development
"The oceans face a range of complex challenges for which the impacts on society are highly uncertain but mostly negative. Tackling these challenges is testing society’s capacity to mobilise transformative action, engendering a sense of powerlessness. Envisaging positive but realistic visions of the future, and considering how current knowledge, resources, and technology could be used to achieve these futures, may lead to greater[...]"
Source: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
Authors: Kirsty L. Nash et al.
Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate
"The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services1,2, but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected3. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue[...]"
Authors: Enric Sala et al.
Wind, waves, and surface currents in the Southern Ocean: observations from the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition
"The Southern Ocean has a profound impact on the Earth's climate system. Its strong winds, intense currents, and fierce waves are critical components of the air–sea interface and contribute to absorbing, storing, and releasing heat, moisture, gases, and momentum. Owing to its remoteness and harsh environment, this region is significantly undersampled, hampering the validation of prediction models and large-scale observations from satellite sensors. Here, an unprecedented data set of simultaneous observations of wind [...]"
Source: Earth System Science Data
Authors: Marzieh H. Derkani et al.
Seaweed farms provide refugia from ocean acidification
"Seaweed farming has been proposed as a strategy for adaptation to ocean acidification, but evidence is largely lacking. Changes of pH and carbon system parameters in surface waters of three seaweed farms along a latitudinal range in China were compared, on the weeks preceding harvesting, with those of the surrounding seawaters. Results confirmed that seaweed farming is efficient in buffering acidification, with Saccharina japonica showing the highest capacity of 0.10 pH increase within the aquaculture area[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Xi Xiao et al
The effects of historical ozone changes on Southern Ocean heat uptake and storage
"Atmospheric ozone concentrations have dramatically changed in the last five decades of past century. Herein we explore the effects of historical ozone changes that include stratospheric ozone depletion on Southern Ocean heat uptake and storage, by comparing CESM1 large ensemble simulations with fixed-ozone experiment. During 1958–2005, the ozone changes contribute to about 50% of poleward intensification of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in historical simulations, which intensifies the Deacon Cell and residual meridional overturning circulation, thus contributing to heat redistribution[...]"
Source: Climate Dynamics
Authors: Shouwei Li et al.
Biogeochemical evolution and organic carbon deposition on the Northwestern European Shelf during the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event
"The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, ~183 Ma) represents a well-known episode of organic-rich deposition, which is accompanied by a substantial negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE). Underpinning the relationships between the carbon-cycle perturbation, ocean anoxia, primary productivity feedbacks and the enrichment of sedimentary organic carbon remains a major challenge. Here, we present high-resolution geochemical[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Alexander J.P.Houben et al.
Reactive Nitrogen Cycling in the Atmosphere and Ocean
"The budget of reactive nitrogen (Nr; oxidized and reduced inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen) has at least doubled since the preindustrial era due to human activities. Excess Nr causes significant detrimental effects on many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; less is known about the impact on the open ocean. Nr deposition may already rival biological N2 fixation quantitatively and will likely continue to rise.[...]"
Source: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Authors: Katye E. Altieri et al.
Marine Litter Windrows: A Strategic Target to Understand and Manage the Ocean Plastic Pollution
"Windrow is a long-established term for the aggregations of seafoam, seaweeds, plankton and natural debris that appear on the ocean surface. Here, we define a “litter windrow” as any aggregation of floating litter at the submesoscale domain (<10 km horizontally), regardless of the force inducing the surface convergence, be it wind or other forces such as tides or density-driven currents. The marine litter windrows observed to date usually form stripes[...]"
Authors: Andrés Cózar et al.
Heavy iron in large gem diamonds traces deep subduction of serpentinized ocean floor
"Subducting tectonic plates carry water and other surficial components into Earth’s interior. Previous studies suggest that serpentinized peridotite is a key part of deep recycling, but this geochemical pathway has not been directly traced. Here, we report Fe-Ni–rich metallic inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds from a depth of 360 to 750 km with isotopically heavy iron (δ56Fe = 0.79 to 0.90‰) and unradiogenic osmium[...]"
Authors: Evan M. Smith et al.