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Variable Oxygen Levels Lead to Variable Stoichiometry of Benthic Nutrient Fluxes in a Hypertrophic Estuary

Abstract.

"Harmful blooms of cyanobacteria may extend over long time spans due to self-sustaining mechanisms. We hypothesized that settled blooms may increase redox-dependent P release and unbalance the stoichiometry of benthic nutrient regeneration (NH4+:SiO2:PO43− ratios). We tested this hypothesis in the hypertrophic Curonian Lagoon, the largest in Europe. During summer, at peak chlorophyll and water temperatures, sediment cores were collected over 19 stations representing all the lagoon sedimentary environments. Sediment organic content, granulometry, aerobic respiration, and oxic[...]"

 

Source: Estuaries and Coasts
Authors: Marco Bartoli et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-020-00786-1

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Trends and variability of ocean waves under RCP8.5 emission scenario in the Mediterranean Sea

Abstract.

"Wind-generated ocean waves are key inputs for several studies and applications, both near the coast (coastal vulnerability assessment, coastal structures design, harbor operativity) and off-shore (a.o. oil and gas production, ship routes, and navigation safety). As such, the evaluation of trends in future wave climate is fundamental for the development of efficient policies in the framework of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. This study focuses[...]"

 

Source: Ocean Dynamics
Authors: Francesco De Leo et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-020-01419-8

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Global patterns for the spatial distribution of floating microfibers: Arctic Ocean as a potential accumulation zone

Abstract.

"Despite their representativeness, most studies to date have underestimated the amount of microfibers (MFs) in the marine environment. Therefore, further research is still necessary to identify key processes governing MF distribution. Here, the interaction among surface water temperature, salinity, currents and winds explained the patterns of MF accumulation. The estimated density of floating MFs is ∼5900 ± 6800 items m−3 in the global ocean; and three patterns of accumulation were predicted by the proposed[...]"

Source: Science Direct
Authors: André R.A.Lima et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123796

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Clouds and Radiation Processes in Regional Climate Models Evaluated Using Observations Over the Ice‐free Arctic Ocean

Abstract.

"The presence of clouds in the Arctic regulates the surface energy budget (SEB) over the sea‐ice surface and the ice‐free ocean. Following several previous field campaigns, the cloud‐radiation relationship, including cloud vertical structure and phase, has been elucidated; however, modeling of this relationship has matured slowly. In recognition of the recent decline in the Arctic sea‐ice extent, representation of the cloud system in numerical models should consider the effects of areas covered by sea ice and ice‐free areas. Using an in situ stationary meteorological observation[...]"

 

Source: AGU- Advancing Earth And Space Science
Authors: Jun Inoue et al.
DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033904

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Changing carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of organic-matter export under ocean acidification

Abstract.

"Ocean acidification (OA) will affect marine biotas from the organism to the ecosystem level. Yet, the consequences for the biological carbon pump and thereby the oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 are still unclear. Here we show that OA considerably alters the C/N ratio of organic-matter export (C/Nexport), a key factor determining efficiency of the biological pump. By synthesizing sediment-trap data from in situ mesocosm studies in different marine biomes[...]

 

Source: Nature Climate Change 
Authors: Jan Taucher et al.
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-00915-5

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Opposite response of strong and moderate positive Indian Ocean Dipole to global warming

Abstract.

"A strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) induces weather extremes such as the 2019 Australian bushfires and African floods. The impact is influenced by sea surface temperature (SST), yet models disagree on how pIOD SST may respond to greenhouse warming. Here we find increased SST variability of strong pIOD events, with strong equatorial eastern Indian Ocean cool anomalies, but decreased variability of moderate pIOD events, dominated by western warm anomalies[...]"

 

Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Wenju Cai et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-00943-1

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Pelagic microplastics in surface water of the Eastern Indian Ocean during monsoon transition period: Abundance, distribution, and characteristics

Abstract.

"Microplastics (MPs) have been documented in almost all marine environments, including coastal regions, the open ocean, and the deep sea. However, relatively little knowledge was available about MP pollution in the open ocean, especially the Indian Ocean. We conducted field observations at 36 stations in the Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO), using a typical manta trawl with a mesh size of 330 μm for surface water sampling. Ours is the first study to obtained comprehensive and comparable baseline data about MPs in the EIO, including abundance, spatial distribution and characteristics[...]"

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Changjun Li et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142629

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11 - Impacts of strong warm ocean currents on development of extratropical cyclones through the warm and cold conveyor belts: A review

Abstract.

"Recent high-resolution observations and numerical simulations have revealed active roles of the ocean in the mid-latitude climate system. In this chapter, we review recent studies on the topic especially focusing on roles of strong oceanic warm currents and associated sea surface temperature (SST) frontal structures in the development of extratropical cyclones, which can cause extreme rainfall/snowfall. Speed of the warm strong ocean currents such as the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension and activities of associated mesoscale eddies have strong influence on SST and its meridional[...]"

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Hidetaka Hirata et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818156-0.00014-9

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Quantifying Nitrous Oxide Cycling Regimes in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean With Isotopomer Analysis

Abstract.

"Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is produced disproportionately in marine oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). To quantify spatiotemporal variation in N2O cycling in an ODZ, we analyzed N2O concentration and isotopologues along a transect through the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP). At several stations along this transect, N2O concentrations reached a near surface maximum that exceeded prior measurements in this region, of up to 226.1 ± 20.5 nM at the coast. Above the σθ = 25.0 kg/m3 isopycnal, Keeling plot analysis revealed two sources[...]"

Source: AGU- Advanced Earth and Space Science
Author: Colette L. Kelly et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GB006637

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The role of environmental factors in the long-term evolution of the marine biological pump

Absract.

"The biological pump—the transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the ocean interior and marine sediments as organic carbon—plays a critical role in regulating the long-term carbon cycle, atmospheric composition and climate. Despite its centrality in the Earth system, the response of the biological pump to biotic innovation and climatic fluctuations through most stages of Earth’s history has been largely conjectural. Here we use a mechanistic model of the biological carbon pump to revisit the factors controlling[...]"

 

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Mojtaba Fakhraee et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-00660-6

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