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Photosensitized formation of sulfate and volatile sulfur gases from dissolved organic sulfur: Roles of pH, dissolved oxygen, and salinity

Abstract.

"The photodegradation of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) is a potential source of aqueous sulfate and its chemical precursors in surface water. However, the photochemical fate of DOS and factors that control its fate still remain unclear. Herein, we employed a DOS model featuring a photosensitizer (humic acids, HA) to investigate the photochemical degradation pathways of DOS in various natural water sources, from which we observed the substantial photosensitized formation of sulfate, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), carbonyl [...]"

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Jian-Long Li et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147449

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How deep ocean-land coupling controls the generation of secondary microseism Love waves

Abstract.

"Wind driven ocean wave-wave interactions produce continuous Earth vibrations at the seafloor called secondary microseisms. While the origin of associated Rayleigh waves is well understood, there is currently no quantified explanation for the existence of Love waves in the most energetic region of the microseism spectrum (3–10 s). Here, using terrestrial seismic arrays and 3D synthetic acoustic-elastic simulations combined with ocean wave hindcast data, we demonstrate that, observed from land[...]"

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Florian Le Pape et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22591-5

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Investigating the Roles of External Forcing and Ocean Circulation on the Atlantic Multidecadal SST Variability in a Large Ensemble Climate Model Hiera

Abstract.

"This paper attempts to enhance our understanding of the causes of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, the AMV. Following the literature, we define the AMV as the SST averaged over the North Atlantic basin, linearly detrended and low-pass filtered. There is an ongoing debate about the drivers of the AMV, which include internal variability generated from the ocean or atmosphere (or both), and external radiative forcing. We test the role of these factors in explaining the time history, variance, and spatial pattern of the AMV using[...]"

 

Source: American Meteorological Soceity 
Authors: Lisa N. Murphy et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0167.1

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Global patterns for the spatial distribution of floating microfibers: Arctic Ocean as a potential accumulation zone

Abstract.

"Despite their representativeness, most studies to date have underestimated the amount of microfibers (MFs) in the marine environment. Therefore, further research is still necessary to identify key processes governing MF distribution. Here, the interaction among surface water temperature, salinity, currents and winds explained the patterns of MF accumulation. The estimated density of floating MFs is ∼5900 ± 6800 items m−3 in the global ocean; and three patterns of accumulation were predicted by the proposed[...]"

Source: Science Direct
Authors: André R.A.Lima et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123796

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Warum Sauerstoff im Meer fehlt

Video recommendation.

"Im Meer gibt es immer mehr Stellen, in denen es kaum noch Sauerstoff gibt: sogenannte "Todeszonen". Wir erklären euch, warum das ein Problem ist."

Source: ZDF
 

watch the video here.


Zooplankton grazing of microplastic can accelerate global loss of ocean oxygen

Abstract.

"Global warming has driven a loss of dissolved oxygen in the ocean in recent decades. We demonstrate the potential for an additional anthropogenic driver of deoxygenation, in which zooplankton consumption of microplastic reduces the grazing on primary producers. In regions where primary production is not limited by macronutrient availability, the reduction of grazing pressure on primary producers causes export production to increase. Consequently, organic particle remineralisation in[...]"

 

Source: Nature Communications 
Authors: K. Kvale et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22554-w

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A committed fourfold increase in ocean oxygen loss

Abstract.

"Less than a quarter of ocean deoxygenation that will ultimately be caused by historical CO2 emissions is already realized, according to millennial-scale model simulations that assume zero CO2 emissions from year 2021 onwards. About 80% of the committed oxygen loss occurs below 2000 m depth, where a more sluggish overturning circulation will increase water residence times and accumulation of respiratory oxygen demand. According to the model results, the deep ocean will thereby lose more than 10% of its pre-industrial oxygen content even if CO2 emissions and thus global warming[...]"

 

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Andreas Oschlies 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22584-4

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Clouds and Radiation Processes in Regional Climate Models Evaluated Using Observations Over the Ice‐free Arctic Ocean

Abstract.

"The presence of clouds in the Arctic regulates the surface energy budget (SEB) over the sea‐ice surface and the ice‐free ocean. Following several previous field campaigns, the cloud‐radiation relationship, including cloud vertical structure and phase, has been elucidated; however, modeling of this relationship has matured slowly. In recognition of the recent decline in the Arctic sea‐ice extent, representation of the cloud system in numerical models should consider the effects of areas covered by sea ice and ice‐free areas. Using an in situ stationary meteorological observation[...]"

 

Source: AGU- Advancing Earth And Space Science
Authors: Jun Inoue et al.
DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033904

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Small phytoplankton contribute greatly to CO2-fixation after the diatom bloom in the Southern Ocean

Abstract.

"Phytoplankton is composed of a broad-sized spectrum of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms. Assessing CO2-fixation intra- and inter-group variability is crucial in understanding how the carbon pump functions, as each group of phytoplankton may be characterized by diverse efficiencies in carbon fixation and export to the deep ocean. We measured the CO2-fixation of different groups of phytoplankton at the single-cell level around the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen plateau (Southern Ocean)[...]"

 

Source: The ISME Journal 
Authors: Solène Irion et al
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-00915-z

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A pole-to-equator ocean ousverturning circulation on Encelad

Abstract.

"Enceladus is believed to have a saltwater global ocean, heated at the ocean–core interface and losing heat to the floating ice shell above. This configuration suggests an important role for vertical convection. The ice shell has dramatic meridional thickness variations that, in steady state, must be sustained by the ocean circulation against processes acting to remove these anomalies. This could be achieved through spatially separated regions of freezing and melting at the ocean–ice interface. Here, we use an idealized[...]"

 

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authours: Ana H. Lobo et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00706-3

Read the full article here.


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