Diverging Fates of the Pacific Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone and Its Core in a Warming World
"Global ocean oxygen loss is projected to persist in the future, but Earth system models (ESMs) have not yet provided a consistent picture of how it will influence the largest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the tropical Pacific. We examine the change in the Pacific OMZ volume in an ensemble of ESMs from the CMIP6 archive, considering a broad range of oxygen (O2) thresholds relevant to biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems (5–160 µmol/kg). Despite OMZ biases in the historical period of the simulations, the ESM ensemble projections consistently fall into three regimes across ESMs […]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Julius J.M. Busecke et al.
Oxygen and irradiance constraints on visual habitat in a changing ocean: The luminoxyscape
"Changing oxygen conditions are altering the distribution of many marine animals. Zooplankton vertical distributions are primarily attributed to physiological tolerance and/or avoidance of visual predation. Recent findings reveal that visual function in marine larvae is highly sensitive to oxygen availability, but it is unknown how oxygen, which affects light sensitivity and generates limits for vision, may affect the distribution of animals that rely heavily on this sensory modality. This study introduces the concept of a “visual luminoxyscape” to demonstrate how combinations of limiting oxygen and light could constrain the habitat of marine larvae with oxygen-demanding vision. [...]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Lillian R. McCormick et al.
Mercury stable isotopes suggest reduced foraging depth in oxygen minimum zones for blue sharks
"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are currently expanding across the global ocean due to climate change, leading to a compression of usable habitat for several marine species. Mercury stable isotope compositions provide a spatially and temporally integrated view of marine predator foraging habitat and its variability with environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed mercury isotopes in blue sharks Prionace glauca from normoxic waters in the northeastern Atlantic and from the world's largest and shallowest OMZ, located in the northeastern Pacific (NEP). [...]".
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Gaël Le Croizier et al.
Competing and accelerating effects of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on climate-driven changes in ocean carbon and oxygen cycles
"Nutrient inputs from the atmosphere and rivers to the ocean are increased substantially by human activities. However, the effects of increased nutrient inputs are not included in the widely used CMIP5 Earth system models, which introduce bias into model simulations of ocean biogeochemistry. Here, using historical simulations by an Earth system model with perturbed atmospheric and riverine nutrient inputs, we show that the contribution of anthropogenic nutrient inputs to past global changes in ocean biogeochemistry is of similar magnitude to the effect of climate change. [...]".
Source: Science Advances
Authors: Akitomo Yamamoto et al.
Responses of Horizontally Expanding Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones to Climate Change Based on Observations
"Due to climate change, global oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO) has been decreasing, and oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have been expanding. Here, we estimate the annual global and regional OMZ areas using geostatistical regression combined with Monte Carlo. From 1960 to 2019, annual global OMZ20 (DO < 20 μmol/kg) and OMZ60 (DO < 60 μmol/kg) areas cover 5%–14% and 15%–32% of the global ocean, respectively. The global and most regional OMZ areas after the late 2000s were all significantly larger than those in previous years. [...]".
Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Yuntao Zhou et al.
Ocean currents as a potential dispersal pathway for Antarctica’s most persistent non-native terrestrial insect
"The non-native midge Eretmoptera murphyi is Antarctica’s most persistent non-native insect and is known to impact the terrestrial ecosystems. It inhabits by considerably increasing litter turnover and availability of soil nutrients. The midge was introduced to Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, from its native South Georgia, and routes of dispersal to date have been aided by human activities, with little known about non-human-assisted methods of dispersal. This study is the first to determine the potential for dispersal of a terrestrial invertebrate species in Antarctica by combining physiological sea water tolerance data with quantitative assessments[...]"
Source: Polar Biology
Authors: Jesamine C. Bartlett et al.
The soundscape of the Anthropocene ocean
"Oceans have become substantially noisier since the Industrial Revolution. Shipping, resource exploration, and infrastructure development have increased the anthrophony (sounds generated by human activities), whereas the biophony (sounds of biological origin) has been reduced by hunting, fishing, and habitat degradation. Climate change is affecting geophony (abiotic, natural sounds). Existing evidence shows that anthrophony affects marine animals[...]".
Authors: Carlos M. Duarte et al.
Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate
"The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services1,2, but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected3. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue[...]"
Authors: Enric Sala et al.
Ocean acidification may slow the pace of tropicalization of temperate fish communities
"Poleward range extensions by warm-adapted sea urchins are switching temperate marine ecosystems from kelp-dominated to barren-dominated systems that favour the establishment of range-extending tropical fishes. Yet, such tropicalization may be buffered by ocean acidification, which reduces urchin grazing performance and the urchin barrens that tropical range-extending fishes prefer.[...]"
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Ericka O. C. Coni et al.
Investigating the Roles of External Forcing and Ocean Circulation on the Atlantic Multidecadal SST Variability in a Large Ensemble Climate Model Hiera
"This paper attempts to enhance our understanding of the causes of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, the AMV. Following the literature, we define the AMV as the SST averaged over the North Atlantic basin, linearly detrended and low-pass filtered. There is an ongoing debate about the drivers of the AMV, which include internal variability generated from the ocean or atmosphere (or both), and external radiative forcing. We test the role of these factors in explaining the time history, variance, and spatial pattern of the AMV using[...]"
Source: American Meteorological Soceity
Authors: Lisa N. Murphy et al.
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