News

Paleocene-Eocene volcanic segmentation of the Norwegian-Greenland seaway reorganized high-latitude ocean circulation

Abstract.

"The paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic development of the Norwegian–Greenland seaway remains poorly understood, despite its importance for the oceanographic and climatic conditions of the Paleocene–Eocene greenhouse world. Here we present analyses of the sedimentological and paleontological characteristics of Paleocene–Eocene deposits (between 63 and 47 million years old) in northeast Greenland, and investigate key unconformities and volcanic facies observed through seismic reflection imaging in offshore basins.[...]"

 

Source: Communications Earth & Environment
Authors: Jussi Hovikoski et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00249-w

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Ocean currents as a potential dispersal pathway for Antarctica’s most persistent non-native terrestrial insect

Abstract.

"The non-native midge Eretmoptera murphyi is Antarctica’s most persistent non-native insect and is known to impact the terrestrial ecosystems. It inhabits by considerably increasing litter turnover and availability of soil nutrients. The midge was introduced to Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, from its native South Georgia, and routes of dispersal to date have been aided by human activities, with little known about non-human-assisted methods of dispersal. This study is the first to determine the potential for dispersal of a terrestrial invertebrate species in Antarctica by combining physiological sea water tolerance data with quantitative assessments[...]"

 

Source: Polar Biology
Authors: Jesamine C. Bartlett  et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02792-2

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The Thermodynamic Controls on Sulfide Saturation in Silicate Melts with Application to Ocean Floor Basalts

Abstract.

"A thermodynamic model to calculate the sulfide content at sulfide saturation or SCSS of basaltic and intermediate composition silicate melts has been built from four independently measurable thermodynamic entities, namely the standard state Gibbs free energy of the saturation reaction, the “sulfide capacity”, and the activities of FeO in[...]"

 

Source: AGU- Advancing Earth and Space Science 
Authors: Daniel R. Neuville et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119473206.ch10

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Recent Developments in Oxygen Minimum Zones Biogeochemistry

New Research Topic: Recent Developments in Oxygen Minimum Zones Biogeochemistry

"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) play a key role in carbon, nitrogen and other elemental cycles, and directly impact climate dynamics by influencing air-sea fluxes of the potent greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Oxygen concentrations, catalyze specialized micro-organisms to regulate chemical fluxes, which are critical for ecosystem functioning. The degree of deoxygenation in the OMZs vary from hypoxic in the tropical Atlantic Ocean to functionally anoxic in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean.[...]"

 

Source: Frontiers
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Constraint on net primary productivity of the global ocean by Argo oxygen measurements

Abstract.

"The biological transformation of dissolved inorganic carbon to organic carbon during photosynthesis in the ocean, marine primary production, is a fundamental driver of biogeochemical cycling, ocean health and Earth’s climate system. The organic matter created supports oceanic food webs, including fisheries, and is an essential control on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Marine primary productivity is sensitive to changes due to climate forcing, but observing the response at the global scale[...]"

 

Source: Nature Geoscience 
Authors: Kenneth S. Johnson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00807-z

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Transferring Complex Scientific Knowledge to Useable Products for Society: The Role of the Global Integrated Ocean Assessment and Challenges in the

Effective Delivery of Ocean Knowledge

Abstract.

"The ocean provides essential services to human wellbeing through climate regulation, provision of food, energy and livelihoods, protection of communities and nurturing of social and cultural values. Yet despite the ocean’s key role for all life, it is failing as a result of unsustainable human practices. The first global integrated assessment of the marine environment, produced by the United Nations under The Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects (the World Ocean Assessment), identified an overall decline in ocean health. The second assessment, launched in April 2021, although recognising some bright spots and improvements, stresses ongoing decline in the ocean[...]"

 

Source: Frontiers
Authors: Karen Evans et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2021.626532

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More than 1000 rivers account for 80% of global riverine plastic emissions into the ocean

Abstract.

"Plastic waste increasingly accumulates in the marine environment, but data on the distribution and quantification of riverine sources required for development of effective mitigation are limited. Our model approach includes geographically distributed data on plastic waste, land use, wind, precipitation, and rivers and calculates the probability for plastic waste to reach a river and subsequently the ocean. This probabilistic approach highlights regions that are likely to emit plastic into the ocean. We calibrated our model using recent field observations[...]".

 

Source: Science Advances 
Authors: LOURENS J. J. MEIJER et al.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz5803

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Hydrostatic pressure is the universal key driver of microbial evolution in the deep ocean and beyond

Abstract.

"Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface, and microbes comprise 90% of the ocean biomass and are regarded as an important ‘hidden’ driver of essential elemental cycling, such as carbon cycling, in the oceans (Karl, 2007; Salazar and Sunagawa, 2017). Although the general public – even many scientists – think of the oceans as unified, stable water systems, they contain varied environments, including extreme environments such as oxygen-deficient zones, oligotrophic open ocean, polar water regions, deep ocean[...]"

 

Source: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Authors: Xiang Xiao et al.
DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12915 

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Toward a better understanding of fish-based contribution to ocean carbon flux

Abstract.

"Fishes are the dominant vertebrates in the ocean, yet we know little of their contribution to carbon export flux at regional to global scales. We synthesize the existing information on fish-based carbon flux in coastal and pelagic waters, identify gaps and challenges in measuring this flux and approaches to address them, and recommend research priorities. Based on our synthesis of passive (fecal pellet sinking) and active.[...]".

 

Source: ASLO- Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography
Authors: Grace K. Saba et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11709

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Floating macrolitter leaked from Europe into the ocean

Abstract.

"Riverine systems act as converging pathways for discarded litter within drainage basins, becoming key elements in gauging the transfer of mismanaged waste into the ocean. However, riverine litter data are scarce and biased towards microplastics, generally lacking information about larger items. Based on the first ever database of riverine floating macrolitter across Europe, we have estimated that between 307 and 925 million litter items are released annually from Europe into the ocean[...]"

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Daniel González-Fernández et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-021-00722-6

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