Clouds and Radiation Processes in Regional Climate Models Evaluated Using Observations Over the Ice‐free Arctic Ocean
"The presence of clouds in the Arctic regulates the surface energy budget (SEB) over the sea‐ice surface and the ice‐free ocean. Following several previous field campaigns, the cloud‐radiation relationship, including cloud vertical structure and phase, has been elucidated; however, modeling of this relationship has matured slowly. In recognition of the recent decline in the Arctic sea‐ice extent, representation of the cloud system in numerical models should consider the effects of areas covered by sea ice and ice‐free areas. Using an in situ stationary meteorological observation[...]"
Source: AGU- Advancing Earth And Space Science
Authors: Jun Inoue et al.
Small phytoplankton contribute greatly to CO2-fixation after the diatom bloom in the Southern Ocean
"Phytoplankton is composed of a broad-sized spectrum of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms. Assessing CO2-fixation intra- and inter-group variability is crucial in understanding how the carbon pump functions, as each group of phytoplankton may be characterized by diverse efficiencies in carbon fixation and export to the deep ocean. We measured the CO2-fixation of different groups of phytoplankton at the single-cell level around the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen plateau (Southern Ocean)[...]"
Source: The ISME Journal
Authors: Solène Irion et al
A pole-to-equator ocean ousverturning circulation on Encelad
"Enceladus is believed to have a saltwater global ocean, heated at the ocean–core interface and losing heat to the floating ice shell above. This configuration suggests an important role for vertical convection. The ice shell has dramatic meridional thickness variations that, in steady state, must be sustained by the ocean circulation against processes acting to remove these anomalies. This could be achieved through spatially separated regions of freezing and melting at the ocean–ice interface. Here, we use an idealized[...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authours: Ana H. Lobo et al.
Current Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation weakest in last millennium
"The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)—one of Earth’s major ocean circulation systems—redistributes heat on our planet and has a major impact on climate. Here, we compare a variety of published proxy records to reconstruct the evolution of the AMOC since about AD 400. A fairly consistent picture of the AMOC emerges: after a long and relatively stable period, there was an initial weakening starting in the nineteenth century, followed by a second, more rapid, decline in the mid-twentieth[...]"
Source: Nature Geosciences
Authors: L. Caesar et al.
Pervasive distribution of polyester fibres in the Arctic Ocean is driven by Atlantic inputs
"Microplastics are increasingly recognized as ubiquitous global contaminants, but questions linger regarding their source, transport and fate. We document the widespread distribution of microplastics in near-surface seawater from 71 stations across the European and North American Arctic - including the North Pole. We also characterize samples to a depth of 1,015 m in the Beaufort Sea. Particle abundance correlated with longitude, with almost three times more particles in the eastern Arctic compared to the west. Polyester comprised[...]"
Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Peter S. Ross et al.
Gulf of Mexico blue hole harbors high levels of novel microbial lineages
"Exploration of oxygen-depleted marine environments has consistently revealed novel microbial taxa and metabolic capabilities that expand our understanding of microbial evolution and ecology. Marine blue holes are shallow karst formations characterized by low oxygen and high organic matter content. They are logistically challenging to sample, and thus our understanding of their biogeochemistry and microbial ecology is limited. We present a metagenomic and geochemical characterization of Amberjack Hole on the Florida continental shelf (Gulf of Mexico). Dissolved oxygen became depleted at the hole’s rim[...]"
Source: The ISME Journal
Authors: N. V. Patin et al.
Changing carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of organic-matter export under ocean acidification
"Ocean acidification (OA) will affect marine biotas from the organism to the ecosystem level. Yet, the consequences for the biological carbon pump and thereby the oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 are still unclear. Here we show that OA considerably alters the C/N ratio of organic-matter export (C/Nexport), a key factor determining efficiency of the biological pump. By synthesizing sediment-trap data from in situ mesocosm studies in different marine biomes[...]
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Jan Taucher et al.
Iron isotopes trace primordial magma ocean cumulates melting in Earth’s upper mantle
"The differentiation of Earth ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago is believed to have culminated in magma ocean crystallization, crystal-liquid separation, and the formation of mineralogically distinct mantle reservoirs. However, the magma ocean model remains difficult to validate because of the scarcity of geochemical tracers of lower mantle mineralogy. The Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) of ancient mafic rocks can be used to reconstruct the mineralogy of their mantle source regions. We present Fe isotope data for 3.7-Ga metabasalts from the Isua Supracrustal Belt (Greenland). The δ57Fe signatures[...]"
Source: Science Advances
Authors: Helen M. Williams et al.
Opposite response of strong and moderate positive Indian Ocean Dipole to global warming
"A strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) induces weather extremes such as the 2019 Australian bushfires and African floods. The impact is influenced by sea surface temperature (SST), yet models disagree on how pIOD SST may respond to greenhouse warming. Here we find increased SST variability of strong pIOD events, with strong equatorial eastern Indian Ocean cool anomalies, but decreased variability of moderate pIOD events, dominated by western warm anomalies[...]"
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Wenju Cai et al.
An integrated framework for lean manufacturing in relation with blue ocean manufacturing - A case study
"Lean Manufacturing (LM) has traditionally helped industries in removing the non-value-added processes to achieve operational excellence. Similarly, the blue ocean strategy helps organizations in creating an uncontested market space where the competition is irrelevant. The authors posit that the integration of two approaches helps in achieving holistic manufacturing excellence, and there is a paucity of approaches that integrate the two paradigms. In order to fill this research gap, the authors have developed an integrated framework that combines the concepts of lean[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Saba Sadiq et al.