Oxygen minimum zone copepods in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal: Their adaptations and status


"The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are cul-de-sacs of the northern Indian Ocean, and they contain more than half of the world's Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs). The current study reviews the vast and advancing literature on the oceanographic settings that lead to distinct OMZs in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and links them with the copepods thriving there, their status, and likely adaptations. The Arabian Sea has a thicker perennial subsurface OMZ (∼1000 m) than the Bay of Bengal (∼500 m), which is linked to high plankton production via upwelling and winter convection in the former and river influx and mesoscale eddies in the latter. [...]."


Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Vidhya Vijayasenan et al.

Read the full article here.

Distribution and biomass of gelatinous zooplankton in relation to an oxygen minimum zone and a shallow seamount in the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic


"Physical and topographic characteristics can structure pelagic habitats and affect the plankton community composition. For example, oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expected to lead to a habitat compression for species with a high oxygen demand, while upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water at seamounts can locally increase productivity, especially in oligotrophic oceanic waters. Here we investigate the response of the gelatinous zooplankton (GZ) assemblage and biomass to differing oxygen conditions and to a seamount in the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) around the Cape Verde archipelago. [...]."


Source: Science Direct

Authors: Florian Lüskow et al. 


Read the full article here. 

Extreme Levels of Ocean Acidification Restructure the Plankton Community and Biogeochemistry of a Temperate Coastal Ecosystem: A Mesocosm Study


"The oceans’ uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) decreases seawater pH and alters the inorganic carbon speciation – summarized in the term ocean acidification (OA). Already today, coastal regions experience episodic pH events during which surface layer pH drops below values projected for the surface ocean at the end of the century. Future OA is expected to further enhance the intensity of these coastal extreme pH events. To evaluate the influence of such episodic OA events in coastal regions, we deployed eight pelagic mesocosms[...]".


Source: Frontiers
Authors: Carsten Spisla et al.

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Zooplankton grazing of microplastic can accelerate global loss of ocean oxygen


"Global warming has driven a loss of dissolved oxygen in the ocean in recent decades. We demonstrate the potential for an additional anthropogenic driver of deoxygenation, in which zooplankton consumption of microplastic reduces the grazing on primary producers. In regions where primary production is not limited by macronutrient availability, the reduction of grazing pressure on primary producers causes export production to increase. Consequently, organic particle remineralisation in[...]"


Source: Nature Communications 
Authors: K. Kvale et al.

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The role of environmental factors in the long-term evolution of the marine biological pump


"The biological pump—the transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the ocean interior and marine sediments as organic carbon—plays a critical role in regulating the long-term carbon cycle, atmospheric composition and climate. Despite its centrality in the Earth system, the response of the biological pump to biotic innovation and climatic fluctuations through most stages of Earth’s history has been largely conjectural. Here we use a mechanistic model of the biological carbon pump to revisit the factors controlling[...]"


Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Mojtaba Fakhraee et al.

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Factors controlling plankton community production, export flux, and particulate matter stoichiometry in the coastal upwelling system off Peru


"Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) are among the most productive marine ecosystems on Earth. The production of organic material is fueled by upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters and high incident light at the sea surface. However, biotic and abiotic factors can modify surface production and related biogeochemical processes. Determining these factors is important because EBUS are considered hotspots of climate change, and reliable predictions of their future functioning requires understanding of the mechanisms driving the biogeochemical cycles therein. In this field experiment, we used in situ mesocosms as tools to improve our mechanistic understanding of processes controlling organic matter cycling in the coastal Peruvian upwelling system.[...]"


Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Lennart Thomas Bach et al.

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Imprint of Trace Dissolved Oxygen on Prokaryoplankton Community Structure in an Oxygen Minimum Zone


"The Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) is a large, persistent, and intensifying oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that accounts for almost half of the total area of global OMZs. Within the OMZ core (∼350–700 m depth), dissolved oxygen is typically near or below the analytical detection limit of modern sensors (∼10 nM). Steep oxygen gradients above and below the OMZ core lead to vertical structuring of microbial communities that also vary between particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) size fractions [...]"

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Luis Medina Faull et al.
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00360

Read the full article here.


The simulated biological response to Southern Ocean eddies via biological rate modification and physical transport


"We examine the structure and drivers of anomalous phytoplankton biomass in Southern Ocean eddies tracked in a global, multi‐year, eddy‐resolving, 3‐D ocean simulation of the Community Earth System Model. We examine how simulated anticyclones and cyclones differentially modify phytoplankton biomass concentrations, growth rates, and physical transport. [...]"

Source: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Authors: Tyler Rohr et al.
DOI: 10.1029/2019GB006385

Read the full article here.

Ocean acidification interacts with variable light to decrease growth but increase particulate organic nitrogen production in a diatom


"Phytoplankton in the upper oceans are exposed to changing light levels due to mixing, diurnal solar cycles and weather conditions. Consequently, effects of ocean acidification are superimposed upon responses to variable light levels. We therefore grew a model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana under either constant or variable light but at the same daily photon dose, with current low (400 μatm, LC) and future high CO2 (1000 μatm, HC) treatments. [...]"

Source: Marine Environmental Research
Authors: Wei Li et al.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104965

Read the full article here.

Observing phytoplankton via satellite

"Thanks to a new algorithm, researchers can now use satellite data to determine in which parts of the ocean certain types of phytoplankton are dominant. In addition, they can identify toxic algal blooms and assess the effects of global warming on marine plankton, allowing them to draw conclusions regarding water quality and the ramifications for the fishing industry. [...]"

Source: Science Daily

Read the full article here.

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