Ecophysiological limits to aerobic metabolism in hypoxia determine epibenthic distributions and energy sequestration in the northeast Pacific ocean
"Expansion of oxygen deficient waters (hypoxia) in the northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) will have marked impacts on marine life. The response of the resident communities will be a function of their ecophysiological constraints in low oxygen, although this remains untested in the NEP due to a lack of integrative studies. Here, we combine in situ surveys and lab-based respirometry experiments were conducted on three indicator species [...] of seasonally hypoxic systems in the NEP to test if metabolic constraints determine distributions and energy sequestration in a hypoxic setting. [...]"
Source: Limonology and Oceanography
Authors: Jackson W. F. Chu, Katie S. P. Gale
Sound physiological knowledge and principles in modeling shrinking of fishes under climate change
"One of the main expected responses of marine fishes to ocean warming is decrease in body size, as supported by evidence from empirical data and theoretical modeling. The theoretical underpinning for fish shrinking is that the oxygen supply to large fish size cannot be met by their gills, whose surface area cannot keep up with the oxygen demand by their three-dimensional bodies. [...]"
Source: Global Change Biology
Authors: Daniel Pauly, William W. L. Cheung
Macroalgal Blooms on the Rise along the Coast of China
"A broad spectrum of events that come under the category of macroalgal blooms are recognized world-wide as a response to elevated levels of eutrophication in coastal areas. In the Yellow Sea of China, green tides have consecutively occurred 10 years, which is considered as the world’s largest Ulva blooms. However, in recently years, golden tides caused by Sargassum seaweed have also been on the rapid rise, resulting in dramatic damage to the environment and economy again. [...]"
Source: Oceanography & Fisheries
Authors: Jianheng Zhang, Yuanzi Huo and Peimin He
Using fuzzy logic to determine the vulnerability of marine species to climate change
"Marine species are being impacted by climate change and ocean acidification, although their level of vulnerability varies due to differences in species' sensitivity, adaptive capacity and exposure to climate hazards. Due to limited data on the biological and ecological attributes of many marine species, as well as inherent uncertainties in the assessment process, climate change vulnerability assessments in the marine environment frequently focus on a limited number of taxa or geographic ranges. [...]"
Source: Global Change Biology
Authors: Miranda C. Jones, William W. L. Cheung
The warmer the ocean surface, the shallower the mixed layer. How much of this is true?
Ocean surface warming is commonly associated with a more stratified, less productive, and less oxygenated ocean. Such an assertion is mainly based on consistent projections of increased near-surface stratification and shallower mixed layers under global warming scenarios. However, while the observed sea surface temperature (SST) is rising at midlatitudes, the concurrent ocean record shows that stratification is not unequivocally increasing nor is MLD shoaling.
Source: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
Authors: R. Somavilla, C. González-Pola, J. Fernández-Diaz
Read the full article here.
Ocean Acidiﬁcation More Rapid in Coastal Oceans
"New research under the joint NCCOS Competitive Research Program and NOAA Ocean Acidification Program finds the combined effects of anthropogenic and biological carbon dioxide (CO2) inputs may lead to more rapid acidiﬁcation in Chesapeake Bay and other coastal water compared to the open ocean. The results indicate that eutrophication can exacerbate ocean acidification (OA) where animal and plant respiration contributes a far greater acidification in the coastal oceans relative to the open ocean. [...]"
Source: The National Centers for Ciastal Ocean Science
A molybdenum-isotope perspective on Phanerozoic deoxygenation events
"The expansion and contraction of sulfidic depositional conditions in the oceans can be tracked with the isotopic composition of molybdenum in marine sediments. However, molybdenum-isotope data are often subject to multiple conflicting interpretations. Here I present a compilation of molybdenum-isotope data from three time intervals: the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event about 183 million years ago, Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 about 94 million years ago, and two early Eocene hyperthermal events from 56 to 54 million years ago. [...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Alexander J. Dickson
Biodiversity response to natural gradients of multiple stressors on continental margins
"Sharp increases in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation that threaten marine organisms on continental margins and their ecological functions and resulting ecosystem services. The relative influence of these stressors on biodiversity remains unclear, as well as the threshold levels for change and when secondary stressors become important. [...]"
Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Authors: Erik A. Sperling, Christina A. Frieder, Lisa A. Levin
Projections of climate-driven changes in tuna vertical habitat based on species-specific differences in blood oxygen affinity
"Oxygen concentrations are hypothesized to decrease in many areas of the ocean as a result of anthropogenically driven climate change, resulting in habitat compression for pelagic animals. The oxygen partial pressure, pO2, at which blood is 50% saturated (P50) is a measure of blood oxygen affinity and a gauge of the tolerance of animals for low ambient oxygen. Tuna species display a wide range of blood oxygen affinities (i.e., P50 values) and therefore may be differentially impacted by habitat compression as they make extensive vertical movements to forage on subdaily time scales. [...]"
Source: Global Change Biology
Authors: K. A. S. Mislan et al.
Ecophenotypic responses of benthic foraminifera to oxygen availability along an oxygen gradient in the California Borderland
"Spatial variation in environmental conditions can elicit predictable size and morphological responses in marine organisms through influences on physiology. Thus, spatial and temporal variation in marine organism size and shape are often used to infer paleoenvironmental conditions, such as dissolved oxygen concentrations. Benthic foraminifera commonly serve as a tool for reconstructing past ocean oxygen levels. [...]"
Source: marine ecology
Authors: Caitlin R. Keating-Bitonti, Jonathan L. Payne
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