News

Hydrostatic pressure is the universal key driver of microbial evolution in the deep ocean and beyond

Abstract.

"Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface, and microbes comprise 90% of the ocean biomass and are regarded as an important ‘hidden’ driver of essential elemental cycling, such as carbon cycling, in the oceans (Karl, 2007; Salazar and Sunagawa, 2017). Although the general public – even many scientists – think of the oceans as unified, stable water systems, they contain varied environments, including extreme environments such as oxygen-deficient zones, oligotrophic open ocean, polar water regions, deep ocean[...]"

 

Source: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Authors: Xiang Xiao et al.
DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12915 

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Toward a better understanding of fish-based contribution to ocean carbon flux

Abstract.

"Fishes are the dominant vertebrates in the ocean, yet we know little of their contribution to carbon export flux at regional to global scales. We synthesize the existing information on fish-based carbon flux in coastal and pelagic waters, identify gaps and challenges in measuring this flux and approaches to address them, and recommend research priorities. Based on our synthesis of passive (fecal pellet sinking) and active.[...]".

 

Source: ASLO- Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography
Authors: Grace K. Saba et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11709

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Floating macrolitter leaked from Europe into the ocean

Abstract.

"Riverine systems act as converging pathways for discarded litter within drainage basins, becoming key elements in gauging the transfer of mismanaged waste into the ocean. However, riverine litter data are scarce and biased towards microplastics, generally lacking information about larger items. Based on the first ever database of riverine floating macrolitter across Europe, we have estimated that between 307 and 925 million litter items are released annually from Europe into the ocean[...]"

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Daniel González-Fernández et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-021-00722-6

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Evolution of (Bio-)Geochemical Processes and Diagenetic Alteration of Sediments Along the Tectonic Migration of Ocean Floor in the Shikoku Basin off J

Abstract.

"Biogeochemical processes in subseafloor sediments are closely coupled to global element cycles. To improve the understanding of changes in biogeochemical conditions on geological timescales, we investigate sediment cores from a 1,180 m deep hole in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan (Site C0023) drilled during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 370. During its tectonic migration from the Shikoku Basin to the Nankai Trough over the past 15 Ma, Site C0023 has experienced significant changes in[...]"

 

Source: AGU- Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: Male Köster et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GC009585

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Fossil evidence for vampire squid inhabiting oxygen-depleted ocean zones since at least the Oligocene

Abstract.

"A marked 120 My gap in the fossil record of vampire squids separates the only extant species (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) from its Early Cretaceous, morphologically-similar ancestors. While the extant species possesses unique physiological adaptations to bathyal environments with low oxygen concentrations, Mesozoic vampyromorphs inhabited epicontinental shelves. However, the timing of their retreat towards bathyal and oxygen-depleted habitats is poorly documented. Here, we document a first record of a post-Mesozoic vampire squid from the Oligocene of the Central Paratethys represented[...]"

 

Source: Communications Biology
Authors: Martin Košťák et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01714-0

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The Ocean barcode atlas: A web service to explore the biodiversity and biogeography of marine organisms

Abstract.

"The Ocean Barcode Atlas (OBA) is a user friendly web service designed for biologists who wish to explore the biodiversity and biogeography of marine organisms locked in otherwise difficult to mine planetary scale DNA metabarcode data sets. Using just a web browser, a comprehensive picture of the diversity of a taxon or a barcode sequence is visualized graphically on world maps and interactive charts. Interactive results panels allow dynamic threshold adjustments and the display of diversity results[...]"

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Caroline Vernette et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13322

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Variability-based constraint on ocean primary production models

Abstract.

"Primary production (PP) is fundamental to ocean biogeochemistry, but challengingly variable. Satellite models are unique tools for investigating PP, but are difficult to compare and validate because of the scale separation between in situ and remote measurements, which also are rarely coincident. Here, I argue that satellite estimates should be log-skew-normally distributed, because of this scale separation and because PP measurements are log-normally distributed.[...]"

 

Source: ASLO- Association for the Sciences of the Limnology and Oceanography 
Authors: B. B. Cael et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/lol2.10196

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Developing achievable alternate futures for key challenges during the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development

Abstract.

"The oceans face a range of complex challenges for which the impacts on society are highly uncertain but mostly negative. Tackling these challenges is testing society’s capacity to mobilise transformative action, engendering a sense of powerlessness. Envisaging positive but realistic visions of the future, and considering how current knowledge, resources, and technology could be used to achieve these futures, may lead to greater[...]"

 

Source: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
Authors: Kirsty L. Nash et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11160-021-09635-1

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Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate

Abstract.

"The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services1,2, but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected3. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue[...]"

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Enric Sala et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03371-z

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The effects of historical ozone changes on Southern Ocean heat uptake and storage

Abstract.

"Atmospheric ozone concentrations have dramatically changed in the last five decades of past century. Herein we explore the effects of historical ozone changes that include stratospheric ozone depletion on Southern Ocean heat uptake and storage, by comparing CESM1 large ensemble simulations with fixed-ozone experiment. During 1958–2005, the ozone changes contribute to about 50% of poleward intensification of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in historical simulations, which intensifies the Deacon Cell and residual meridional overturning circulation, thus contributing to heat redistribution[...]"

 

Source: Climate Dynamics
Authors: Shouwei Li et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-021-05803-y

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