Mid-Cretaceous marine Os isotope evidence for heterogeneous cause of oceanic anoxic events


"During the mid-Cretaceous, the Earth experienced several environmental perturbations, including an extremely warm climate and Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Submarine volcanic episodes associated with formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs) may have triggered these perturbations. The osmium isotopic ratio (187Os/188Os) is a suitable proxy for tracing hydrothermal activity associated with the LIPs formation, but 187Os/188Os data from the mid-Cretaceous are limited to short time intervals. Here we provide a continuous high-resolution marine 187Os/188Os record covering all mid-Cretaceous OAEs. Several OAEs (OAE1a, Wezel and Fallot events, and OAE2) correspond to unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, suggesting that they were triggered by massive submarine volcanic episodes. However, minor OAEs (OAE1c and OAE1d), which do not show pronounced unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, were likely caused by enhanced monsoonal activity. [...]".


Source: Nature Communications 

Authors: Hironao Matsumoto et al.


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Calculating dissolved marine oxygen values based on an enhanced Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index


"Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) trap greenhouse gases, reduce livable habitats, a critical factor for these changes is the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO). The frequently used tool to reconstruct DO values, the Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index (BFOI), showed major shortcomings and lacks effectiveness. Therefore, we enhanced the BFOI and introduce enhanced BFOI (EBFOI) formulas by using all available data benthic foraminifers provide, calculating the whole livable habitat of benthic foraminifers, including bottom water oxygenation (BWO) and pore water oxygenation (PWO). Further, we introduce for the first time a transfer function to convert EBFOI vales directly into DO values, increasing efficiency by up to 38%. [...]".


Source: Nature Scientific Reports

Authors: Matthias Kranner et al. 


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Oxygen export to the deep ocean following Labrador Sea Water formation


"The Labrador Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean is one of the few regions globally where oxygen from the atmosphere can reach the deep ocean directly. This is the result of wintertime deep convection, which homogenizes the water column to a depth of up to 2000 m and brings deep water undersaturated in oxygen into contact with the atmosphere. In this study, we analyze how the intense oxygen uptake during Labrador Sea Water (LSW) formation affects the properties of the outflowing deep western boundary current, which ultimately feeds the upper part of the North Atlantic Deep Water layer in much of the Atlantic Ocean. [...]".


Source: Biogeosciences

Authors: Jannes Koelling et al. 


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Chapter 13 - The crucial contribution of mixing to present and future ocean oxygen distribution


"The oxygen content of the ocean interior largely results from a balance between respiration and advective ventilation, with only a small contribution from mixing processes. However, two important characteristics, which are key to future oxygen distribution in the ocean, primarily depend on the strength of ocean mixing. The first relates to the oxygen minimum zones (OMZ), which are wide O2-deficient mesopelagic layers inhospitable to most marine macro-fauna. We illustrate how mixing intensity controls the volume[...]".


Source: Science Direct
Authors: Marina Lévy et al.

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Ocean acidification alters the nutritional value of Antarctic diatoms


"Primary production in the Southern Ocean is dominated by diatom-rich phytoplankton assemblages, whose individual physiological characteristics and community composition are strongly shaped by the environment, yet knowledge on how diatoms allocate cellular energy in response to ocean acidification (OA) is limited. Understanding such changes in allocation is integral to determining the nutritional quality of diatoms and the subsequent impacts on the trophic transfer of energy and nutrients.[...]".


Source: New Phytologist 
Authors: Rebecca J. Duncan et al.

Read the full article here.


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