News

Eddy-Mediated Turbulent Mixing of Oxygen in the Equatorial Pacific

Abstract.

"In the tropical Pacific, weak ventilation and intense microbial respiration at depth give rise to a low dissolved oxygen (O2) environment that is thought to be ventilated primarily by the equatorial current system (ECS). The role of mesoscale eddies and vertical mixing as potential pathways of O2 supply in this region, however, remains poorly known due to sparse observations and coarse model resolution. Using an eddy resolving simulation of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, we assess the contribution of these processes to the O2 budget balance and find that vertical mixing of O2 [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Yassir A. Eddebbar et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2023JC020588

Read the full article here.


Preprint: Reviews and syntheses: Abrupt ocean biogeochemical change under human-made climatic forcing – warming, acidification, and deoxygenation

Abstract.

"Abrupt changes in ocean biogeochemical variables occur as a result of human-induced climate forcing as well as those which are more gradual and occur over longer timescales. These abrupt changes have not yet been identified and quantified to the same extent as the more gradual ones. We review and synthesise abrupt changes in ocean biogeochemistry under human-induced climatic forcing. We specifically address the ocean carbon and oxygen cycles because the related processes of acidification and deoxygenation provide important ecosystem hazards. [...]".

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Christoph Heinze et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2023-182

Read the full article here.


Editorial: Recent developments in oxygen minimum zones biogeochemistry

Abstract.

"Marine Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) modulate biogeochemical cycles, and directly impact climate dynamics by influencing air-sea fluxes of the potent greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide (Levin, 2018). OMZs are formed in regions of weak oxygen (O2) supply from physical ventilation and high integrated microbial O2 demand fueled by downward organic flux from overlying surface waters. The ocean’s major OMZs are found in the Eastern Tropical South and North Pacific Ocean and the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean (Karstensen et al., 2008; Stramma et al., 2008). [...]".

 

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Annie Bourbonnais et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1333731

Read the full article here.


Benthic foraminifera and gromiids from oxygen-depleted environments – survival strategies, biogeochemistry and trophic interactions

Abstract.

"The oceans are losing oxygen (O2), and oxygen minimum zones are expanding due to climate warming (lower O2 solubility) and eutrophication related to agriculture. This trend is challenging for most marine taxa that are not well adapted to O2 depletion. For other taxa this trend might be advantageous because they can withstand low O2 concentrations or thrive under O2-depleted or even anoxic conditions. Benthic foraminifera are a group of protists that include taxa with adaptations to partly extreme environmental conditions. [...]".

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Nicolaas Glock
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-20-3423-2023

Read the full article here.


Partitioning of the denitrification pathway and other nitrite metabolisms within global oxygen deficient zones

Abstract.

"Oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) account for about 30% of total oceanic fixed nitrogen loss via processes including denitrification, a microbially mediated pathway proceeding stepwise from NO3– to N2. This process may be performed entirely by complete denitrifiers capable of all four enzymatic steps, but many organisms possess only partial denitrification pathways, either producing or consuming key intermediates such as the greenhouse gas N2O. Metagenomics and marker gene surveys have revealed a diversity of denitrification genes within ODZs, but whether these genes co-occur within [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Irene H. Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43705-023-00284-y

Read the full article here.


A well-oxygenated eastern tropical Pacific during the warm Miocene

Abstract.

"The oxygen content of the oceans is susceptible to climate change and has declined in recent decades, with the largest effect in oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs), that is, mid-depth ocean regions with oxygen concentrations <5 μmol kg−1 (ref.). Earth-system-model simulations of climate warming predict that ODZs will expand until at least 2100. The response on timescales of hundreds to thousands of years, however, remains uncertain. Here we investigate changes in the response of ocean oxygenation during the warmer-than-present Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO; 17.0–14.8 million years ago (Ma)). [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Anya V. Hess et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06104-6

Read the full article here.


A hydrogenotrophic Sulfurimonas is globally abundant in deep-sea oxygen-saturated hydrothermal plumes

Abstract. 

"Members of the bacterial genus Sulfurimonas (phylum Campylobacterota) dominate microbial communities in marine redoxclines and are important for sulfur and nitrogen cycling. Here we used metagenomics and metabolic analyses to characterize a Sulfurimonasfrom the Gakkel Ridge in the Central Arctic Ocean and Southwest Indian Ridge, showing that this species is ubiquitous in non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes at Mid Ocean Ridges across the global ocean. One Sulfurimonas species, USulfurimonas pluma, was found to be globally abundant and active in cold (<0−4 °C), oxygen-saturated and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal plumes. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Massimiliano Molari et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-023-01342-w

Read the full article here.


Drivers and Potential Consequences of Observed Extreme Hypoxia Along the Canadian Pacific Continental Shelf

Abstract. 

"Bottom waters of the northeast Pacific continental shelf naturally experience localized hypoxic conditions, with significant influences on food webs and biogeochemical cycling. In August 2021, extreme hypoxia was detected from several measurement platforms along the southern British Columbia continental shelf, with oxygen concentration <60 μmol kg−1, and a difference from the seasonal climatology of more than 2 standard deviations. Early and intense remote upwelling and local density shifts were associated with an anomalously strong spring phytoplankton bloom, which likely stimulated localized respiration of subsurface organic matter. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library 
Authors: Ana C. Franco et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL101857

Read the full article here.


Global ocean redox changes before and during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

Abstract. 

"Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events are recognized as widespread deposits of marine organic-rich mudrocks temporally associated with mass extinctions and large igneous province emplacement. The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event is one example during which expanded ocean anoxia is hypothesized in response to environmental perturbations associated with emplacement of the Karoo–Ferrar igneous province. However, the global extent of total seafloor anoxia and the relative extent of euxinic (anoxic and sulfide-rich) and non-euxinic anoxic conditions during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event are poorly constrained. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Alexandra Kunert & Brian Kendall
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-36516-x

Read the full article here.


Sedimentary molybdenum and uranium: Improving proxies for deoxygenation in coastal depositional environments

Abstract. 

"Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) enrichments are widely used to reconstruct changes in bottom water oxygen conditions in aquatic environments. Until now, most studies using Mo and U have focused on restricted suboxic-euxinic basins and continental margin oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), leaving mildly reducing and oxic (but eutrophic) coastal depositional environments vastly understudied. Currently, it is unknown: (1) to what extent Mo and U enrichment factors (Mo- and U-EFs) can accurately reconstruct oxygen conditions in coastal sites experiencing mild deoxygenation, and (2) to what degree secondary [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: K. Mareike Paul et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2022.121203

Read the full article here.


Recovery from microplastic-induced marine deoxygenation may take centuries

Abstract.

"Climate change and plastics pollution are dual threats to marine environments. Here we use biogeochemical and microplastic modelling to show that even if there is complete removal of microplastics and cessation of deposition in the oceans in 2022, regional recovery from microplastic-induced remineralization and water column deoxygenation could take hundreds of years for coastal upwelling zones, the North Pacific and Southern Ocean. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Karin Kvale & Andreas Oschlies
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-01096-w 

Read the full article here.


Geochemical and paleontological evidence of early Cambrian dynamic ocean oxygenation and its implications for organic matter accumulation in mudrocks

Abstract. 

"The evolution of global ocean oxygenation during the early Cambrian remains highly controversial, making it difficult to evaluate how environmental triggers play a role in controlling the organic matter (OM) accumulation in black shales. In this study, an integrated approach, including total organic carbon (TOC) content, major and trace element geochemistry, and microscope images, was systematically conducted in a continuous core well that penetrated through the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe (YJH)–Shuijingtuo (SJT, subdivided into SM Ⅰ, SM Ⅱ, SM Ⅲ, and SM Ⅳ members) successions (∼541-514Ma) at the Three Gorges area [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Yu Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2022.105958

Read the full article here.


Iron deposition during recovery from Late Devonian oceanic anoxia: Implications of the geochemistry of the Kawame ferromanganese deposit, Nedamo Belt

Abstract. 

"The Late Devonian, during which one of the “Big Five” Phanerozoic mass extinction events occurred, was one of the most important time intervals in Earth history. Nevertheless, the paucity of deep-sea records due to subduction has hampered elucidation of the pelagic environment during the Late Devonian in Panthalassa. However, ancient hydrothermal ferromanganese sediments, which were deposited on the abyssal seafloor and then accreted onto continental margins, are preserved as umber deposits and exposed in accretionary prisms. These sediments can provide key information to characterize the paleo-ocean. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Yusuke Kuwahara et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103920

Read the full article here.


Ocean biogeochemical modelling

Abstract. 

"Ocean biogeochemical models describe the ocean’s circulation, physical properties, biogeochemical properties and their transformations using coupled differential equations. Numerically approximating these equations enables simulation of the dynamic evolution of the ocean state in realistic global or regional spatial domains, across time spans from years to centuries. This Primer explains the process of model construction and the main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different model types, from the simplest nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus model to the complex biogeochemical models used in Earth system modelling and climate prediction. [...]".

 

Source: Nature Reviews Methods Primers 
Authors: Katja Fennel et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43586-022-00154-2 

Read the full article here.


Ventilation changes drive orbital-scale deoxygenation trends in the late Cretaceous ocean

Abstract. 

"Mechanisms that drive cyclicity in marine sediment deposits during hothouse climate periods in response to Earth’s orbit variations remain debated. Orbital cycles fingerprint in the oceanographic records results from the combined effect of terrestrial (e.g. weathering-derived nutrient supply, freshwater discharge) and oceanic (e.g. productivity, oxygenation) processes, whose respective contribution remains to be clarified. [...]".

 

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Anta-Clarisse Sarr et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL099830

Read the full article here.


Ironstone as a proxy of Paleozoic ocean oxygenation

Abstract. 

"Marine ironstone is a Phanerozoic biochemical sedimentary rock that contains abundant primary iron. Although rare, ironstone is conspicuous in the Paleozoic sedimentary record. Its iron source remains contentious, with traditional models invoking a continentally derived source. Increasing sedimentologic evidence suggests that many Paleozoic ironstones formed along favourably oriented continental margins where coastal upwelling delivered ferruginous waters, with the postulated source of iron being deep-ocean hydrothermal fluids. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Edward J. Matheson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117715

Read the full article here.


Continental configuration controls ocean oxygenation during the Phanerozoic

Abstract. 

"The early evolutionary and much of the extinction history of marine animals is thought to be driven by changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations ([O2]) in the ocean. In turn, [O2] is widely assumed to be dominated by the geological history of atmospheric oxygen (pO2). Here, by contrast, we show by means of a series of Earth system model experiments how continental rearrangement during the Phanerozoic Eon drives profound variations in ocean oxygenation and induces a fundamental decoupling in time between upper-ocean and benthic [O2]. [...]". 

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Alexandre Pohl et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05018-z 

Read the full article here.


Low oxygen levels with high redox heterogeneity in the late Ediacaran shallow ocean: Constraints from I/(Ca + Mg) and Ce/Ce* of the Dengying Formation

Abstract. 

"Most previous studies focused on the redox state of the deep water, leading to an incomplete understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution of the redox-stratified ocean during the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition. In order to decode the redox condition of shallow marine environments during the late Ediacaran, this study presents I/(Ca + Mg), carbon and oxygen isotope, major, trace, and rare earth element data of subtidal to peritidal dolomite from the Dengying Formation at Yangba, South China. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Yi Ding et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12520

Read the full article here.


The Fate of Oxygen in the Ocean and Its Sensitivity to Local Changes in Biological Production

Abstract. 

"We investigate the sensitivity of the oxygen content and true oxygen utilization of key low-oxygen regions Ω to pointwise changes in biological production. To understand how the combined water and biogenic particle transport controls the sensitivity patterns and the fate of oxygen in the ocean, we develop new relationships that link the steady-state oxygen content and deficit of Ω to the downstream and upstream oxygen utilization rate (OUR), respectively. We find that the amount of oxygen from Ω that will be lost per unit volume at point r is linked to OUR(r) through the mean oxygen age accumulated in Ω. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library 
Authors: Mark Holzer
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JC018802

Read the full article here.


Mo isotope composition of the 0.85 Ga ocean from coupled carbonate and shale archives: Some implications for pre-Cryogenian oxygenation

Abstract.

"This study addresses marine palaeoredox conditions of the mid-Neoproterozoic by analysing the Mo isotope, trace element, and U-Th-Pb isotope compositions of shallow water microbial carbonate, deep water pelagic carbonate, and shale from the Stone Knife Formation (SKF) in NW Canada. The U-Th-Pb isotope SKF systematics of reef microbialite carbonates, and the moderately expressed negative Ce anomalies are consistent with the presence of dissolved O2 in the surface waters. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Edel Mary O'Sullivan et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2022.106760

Read the full article here.


Nitrogen isotope evidence for oxygenated upper ocean during the Cryogenian interglacial period

Abstract.

"The Cryogenian interglacial period have witnessed dramatic changes in climate, oceanic environment and biological evolution. The nitrogen isotopic composition, as an important biogeochemical proxy, has the potential to track both the nutrient cycling and redox conditions in the past. However, nitrogen isotopic data during this interglacial time is rather limited. Here, we present integrated data for nitrogen isotopes (δ15N), as well as organic carbon isotopes (δ13Corg), iron (Fe) speciation, pyrite morphology and trace elements from the Cryogenian interglacial Datangpo Formation derived from a drill core from South China to figure out the nitrogen cycling and coeval redox states. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Guangyou Zhu et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2022.120929

Read the full article here.


Geochemical evidence from the Kioto Carbonate Platform (Tibet) reveals enhanced terrigenous input and deoxygenation during the early Toarcian

Abstract.

"The early Toarcian, as registered in a variety of sedimentary archives, was characterized by an abrupt negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) typically superimposed on a long-term positive trend, and was accompanied by significant climatic and environmental changes. However, the changes in continental weathering influx and oceanic deoxygenation in shallow waters and their possible role in causing carbonate-platform crises in low latitudes remains poorly constrained. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Zhong Han et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103887

Read the full article here.


Enhanced phosphorus recycling during past oceanic anoxia amplified by low rates of apatite authigenesis

Abstract.

"Enhanced recycling of phosphorus as ocean deoxygenation expanded under past greenhouse climates contributed to widespread organic carbon burial and drawdown of atmospheric CO2. Redox-dependent phosphorus recycling was more efficient in such ancient anoxic marine environments, compared to modern anoxic settings, for reasons that remain unclear. Here, we show that low rates of apatite authigenesis in organic-rich sediments can explain the amplified phosphorus recycling in ancient settings as reflected in highly elevated ratios of organic carbon to total phosphorus. [...]".

 

Source: Science Advances 
Authors: Nina M. Papadomanolaki et al.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abn2370

Read the full article here.


Competing and accelerating effects of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on climate-driven changes in ocean carbon and oxygen cycles

Abstract. 

"Nutrient inputs from the atmosphere and rivers to the ocean are increased substantially by human activities. However, the effects of increased nutrient inputs are not included in the widely used CMIP5 Earth system models, which introduce bias into model simulations of ocean biogeochemistry. Here, using historical simulations by an Earth system model with perturbed atmospheric and riverine nutrient inputs, we show that the contribution of anthropogenic nutrient inputs to past global changes in ocean biogeochemistry is of similar magnitude to the effect of climate change. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Advances
Authors: Akitomo Yamamoto et al. 
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abl9207

Read the full article here.


Reactive oxygen species in the world ocean and their impacts on marine ecosystems

Abstract. 

"Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are omnipresent in the ocean, originating from both biological (e.g., unbalanced metabolism or stress) and non-biological processes (e.g. photooxidation of colored dissolved organic matter). ROS can directly affect the growth of marine organisms, and can also influence marine biogeochemistry, thus indirectly impacting the availability of nutrients and food sources. Microbial communities and evolution are shaped by marine ROS, and in turn microorganisms influence steady-state ROS concentrations by acting as the predominant sink for marine ROS. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: J. Jeffrey Morris et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2022.102285

Read the full article here.


Anaerobic methane oxidation in a coastal oxygen minimum zone: spatial and temporal dynamics

Abstract. 

"Coastal waters are a major source of marine methane to the atmosphere. Particularly high concentrations of this potent greenhouse gas are found in anoxic waters, but it remains unclear if and to what extent anaerobic methanotrophs mitigate the methane flux. Here we investigate the long-term dynamics in methanotrophic activity and the methanotroph community in the coastal oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, combining biogeochemical analyses, experimental incubations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing over 3 consecutive years. [...]".

 

Source: Environmental Microbiology

Authors: Herdís G. R. Steinsdóttir et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.16003

Read the full article here.


Sensitivity of Global Ocean Deoxygenation to Vertical and Isopycnal Mixing in an Ocean Biogeochemistry Model

Abstract. 

"Large-scale loss of oxygen under global warming is termed “ocean deoxygenation” and is caused by the imbalance between physical supply and biological consumption of oxygen in the ocean interior. Significant progress has been made in the theoretical understanding of ocean deoxygenation; however, many questions remain unresolved. The oxygen change in the tropical thermocline is poorly understood, with diverging projections among different models. Physical oxygen supply is controlled by a suite of processes that transport oxygen-rich surface waters into the interior ocean, which is expected to weaken due to increasing stratification under global warming. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library

Authors: Taka Ito et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GB007151

Read the full article here.


Calculating dissolved marine oxygen values based on an enhanced Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index

Abstract. 

"Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) trap greenhouse gases, reduce livable habitats, a critical factor for these changes is the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO). The frequently used tool to reconstruct DO values, the Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index (BFOI), showed major shortcomings and lacks effectiveness. Therefore, we enhanced the BFOI and introduce enhanced BFOI (EBFOI) formulas by using all available data benthic foraminifers provide, calculating the whole livable habitat of benthic foraminifers, including bottom water oxygenation (BWO) and pore water oxygenation (PWO). Further, we introduce for the first time a transfer function to convert EBFOI vales directly into DO values, increasing efficiency by up to 38%. [...]".

 

Source: Nature Scientific Reports

Authors: Matthias Kranner et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05295-8

Read the full article here.


Small phytoplankton contribute greatly to CO2-fixation after the diatom bloom in the Southern Ocean

Abstract.

"Phytoplankton is composed of a broad-sized spectrum of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms. Assessing CO2-fixation intra- and inter-group variability is crucial in understanding how the carbon pump functions, as each group of phytoplankton may be characterized by diverse efficiencies in carbon fixation and export to the deep ocean. We measured the CO2-fixation of different groups of phytoplankton at the single-cell level around the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen plateau (Southern Ocean)[...]"

 

Source: The ISME Journal 
Authors: Solène Irion et al
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-00915-z

Read the full article here.


Observing the Global Ocean with Biogeochemical-Argo

Abstract.

"Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) is a network of profiling floats carrying sensors that enable observation of as many as six essential biogeochemical and bio-optical variables: oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll a, suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance. This sensor network represents today's most promising strategy for collecting temporally and vertically resolved observations of biogeochemical properties throughout the ocean. All data are freely available within 24 hours of transmission. These data fill large gaps in ocean-observing systems and support three ambitions: gaining a better understanding of biogeochemical processes (e.g., the biological[...]"

 

Source: Annual Review of Marine Science
Authors: Hervé Claustre et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010956

Read the full article here.

 

 


Discovery and Mapping of the Triton Seep Site, Redondo Knoll: Fluid Flow and Microbial Colonization Within an Oxygen Minimum Zone

Abstract.

"This paper examines a deep-water (∼900 m) cold-seep discovered in a low oxygen environment ∼30 km off the California coast in 2015 during an E/V Nautilus telepresence-enabled cruise. This Triton site was initially detected from bubble flares identified via shipboard multibeam sonar and was then confirmed visually using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Hercules. High resolution mapping (to 1 cm resolution) and co-registered imaging has provided us with a comprehensive site overview – both of the geologic setting and the extent of the associated microbial colonization. [...]"

Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Jamie K. S. Wagner et al.
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00108

Read the full article here.


Climatic, physical, and biogeochemical changes drive rapid oxygen loss and recovery in a marine ecosystem

Abstract.

"Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations shape the biogeochemistry and ecological structure of aquatic ecosystems; as a result, understanding how and why DO varies in space and time is of fundamental importance. Using high-resolution, in situ DO time-series collected over the course of a year in a novel marine ecosystem (Jellyfish Lake, Palau), we show that DO declined throughout the marine lake and subsequently recovered in the upper water column. [...]"

Source: Scientific Reports
Authors: Jesse Wilson et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-52430-z

Read the full article here.


The influence of dissolved organic matter on the marine production of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) in the Peruvian upwelling

Abstract.

"Oceanic emissions of the climate-relevant trace gases carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) are a major source to their atmospheric budget. Their current and future emission estimates are still uncertain due to incomplete process understanding and therefore inexact quantification across different biogeochemical regimes.  [...]"

Source: Ocean Science
Authors: Sinikka T. Lennartz et al.
DOI: 10.5194/os-15-1071-2019

Read the full article here.


Evolving paradigms in biological carbon cycling in the ocean

Abstract.

"Carbon is a keystone element in global biogeochemical cycles. It plays a fundamental role in biotic and abiotic processes in the ocean, which intertwine to mediate the chemistry and redox status of carbon in the ocean and the atmosphere. The interactions between abiotic and biogenic carbon (e.g. CO2, CaCO3, organic matter) in the ocean are complex, and there is a half-century-old enigma about the existence of a huge reservoir of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) that equates to the magnitude of the pool of atmospheric CO2. The concepts of the biological carbon pump (BCP) and the microbial loop (ML) shaped our understanding of the marine carbon cycle.  [...]"

Source: National Science Review
Authors: Chuanlun Zhang et al.
DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwy074

Read the full article here.


Interpreting Mosaics of Ocean Biogeochemistry

"Sea level rise, heat transport, ocean acidification, these ocean processes, well known in the public sphere, play out on a regional to global scale. But less well known are more localized processes that bring some ecological niches together, keep others separated, and help sustain ocean life by circulating nutrients.

Physical processes in the ocean that take place over intermediate and small scales of space and time play a key role in vertical seawater exchange. They also have significant effects on chemical, biological, and ecological processes in the upper ocean. [...]"

Source: EOS

Read the full article here.


(2010) The Growing Human Footprint on Coastal and Open-Ocean Biogeochemistry

Abstract.

"Climate change, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, excess nutrient inputs, and pollution in its many forms are fundamentally altering the chemistry of the ocean, often on a global scale and, in some cases, at rates greatly exceeding those in the historical and recent geological record. Major observed trends include a shift in the acid-base chemistry of seawater, reduced subsurface oxygen both in near-shore coastal water and in the open ocean, rising coastal nitrogen levels, and widespread increase in mercury and persistent organic pollutants. [...]"

Source: Science
Author: Scott C. Doney
DOI: 10.1126/science.1185198

Read the full article here.


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