News

Shifts in magnetic mineral assemblages support ocean deoxygenation before the end-Permian mass extinction

Abstract.

"Expansion of oceanic anoxia is a prevailing hypothesis for driving the marine end-Permian mass extinction and is mainly based on isotopic geochemical proxies. However, long-term oceanic redox conditions before the end-Permian mass extinction remain unresolved. Here we report a secular redox trend based on rock magnetic experiments and cerium anomalies through the Changhsingian and across the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Meishan section, China. Magnetic mineral assemblages changed dramatically at ca. 252.8 million years age (Ma), which indicates that oceanic deoxygenation started about 0.9 million years earlier than the end-Permian mass extinction. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Min Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-024-01394-8

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Enhanced ocean deoxygenation in the Bering Sea during MIS 11c

Abstract.

"Accelerated Arctic warming has raised concerns about future environmental conditions in the Bering Sea, one of the world's most productive marine ecosystems. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (424–374 ka), a period with orbital parameters similar to those of the current interglacial (Holocene), is thought to be a suitable analog to predict future marine environments. Here, we reconstruct paleoredox changes in the Bering Sea over the last 800 kyr using high-resolution U/Th ratios from four sites, which were sampled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Xuguang Feng et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111982

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The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (Jenkyns Event) in the Alpine-Mediterranean Tethys, north African margin...

Full title: "The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (Jenkyns Event) in the Alpine-Mediterranean Tethys, north African margin, and north European epicontinental seaway"

Abstract.

"The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (Jenkyns Event) was associated with major world-wide climatic changes with profound effects on the global carbon cycle. This review revisits the available literature covering the Jenkyns Event applying an updated common stratigraphic definition, allowing illustration of the development and evolution of anoxia in the Alpine-Mediterranean Tethys [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Gabriele Gambacorta et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2023.104636

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Sedimentary environment and benthic oxygenation history of the Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk Group, south Texas...

Full title: "Sedimentary environment and benthic oxygenation history of the Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk Group, south Texas: An integrated ichnological, sedimentological and geochemical approach"

Abstract.

"Oxygen concentration in the ocean is vital for sustaining marine ecosystems. While the potential impacts of deoxygenation on modern oceans are hard to predict, lessons can be learned from better characterizing past geological intervals formed under a greenhouse climate. The greenhouse Cretaceous containing several oceanic anoxic events [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Charlie Y. C. Zheng et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.13169

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Fossil-Bearing Concretions of the Araripe Basin Accumulated During Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b

Abstract.

"Fossils from the Araripe Basin (northeastern Brazil) are known for their remarkable preservation of vertebrates and invertebrates, even including soft tissues. They occur in carbonate concretions within organic carbon-rich strata assigned to the Romualdo Formation. Here we present integrated stable isotope, elemental and microfossil records from the Sítio Sobradinho outcrop, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil. Our results imply that black shales hosting fossil-bearing carbonate concretions within the lower Romualdo Formation were deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1b (Kilian sub-event). [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Marlone H. H. Bom et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2023PA004736

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Butterfly effect of shallow-ocean deoxygenation on past marine biodiversity

Abstract.

"A geochemical study of an ancient mass-extinction event shows that only moderate expansion of oxygen-deficient waters along continental margins is needed to decimate marine biodiversity. This finding provides a stark warning of the possible consequences of human-driven ocean deoxygenation on life in Earth’s shallow oceans. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Brian Kendall
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-023-01310-3

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Widespread marine euxinia along the western Yangtze Platform caused by oxygen minimum zone expansion during the Capitanian mass extinction

Abstract.

"The development of widespread marine anoxic and/or euxinic conditions has been proposed as a likely driver of the mid-Capitanian mass extinction. However, the driving mechanisms and spatiotemporal evolution of anoxia/euxinia remain poorly constrained. In order to decipher changes in marine redox conditions and their possible influence on the mid-Capitanian biotic crisis, we applied multiple geochemical indicators to three sections across a shelf-to-basin transect in the Middle Permian Kuhfeng and Lower Yinping formations of the Lower Yangtze Basin, South China. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Bolin Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104273

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Spatial pattern of marine oxygenation set by tectonic and ecological drivers over the Phanerozoic

Abstract.

"Marine redox conditions (that is, oxygen levels) impact a wide array of biogeochemical cycles, but the main controls of marine redox since the start of the Phanerozoic about 538 million years ago are not well established. Here we combine supervised machine learning with shale-hosted trace metal concentrations to reconstruct a near-continuous record of redox conditions in major marine depositional settings. We find synchronously opposite redox changes in upper ocean versus deep shelf and (semi-)restricted basin settings ('redox anticouples', nomen novum) in several multi-million-year intervals, which can be used to track the positions of oxygen-minimum zones and the primary locations of organic burial through time. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Xiangli Wang et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-023-01296-y

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Carbonate-hosted manganese deposits and ocean anoxia

Abstract.

"Late Devonian (ca. 360 Ma), Early Carboniferous (ca. 330 Ma), and Early Triassic (ca. 250 Ma) manganese deposits in the South China Block support an emerging view that some Mn carbonates form through direct synsedimentary (authigenic) precipitation. These Mn carbonates accumulated on distal shelves and are interbedded with lime mudstone and heterozoan carbonates that accumulated in coastal upwelling environments. Lithofacies, Ce anomalies combined with vanadium, uranium, and molybdenum enrichments indicate that the Mn carbonates were primarily precipitated under anoxic conditions. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Fangge Chen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2023.118385

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“Hypoxic” Silurian oceans suggest early animals thrived in a low-O2 world

Abstract.

"Atmospheric oxygen (O2) concentrations likely remained below modern levels until the Silurian–Devonian, as indicated by several recent studies. Yet, the background redox state of early Paleozoic oceans remains poorly constrained, hampering our understanding of the relationship between early animal evolution and O2. Here, we present a multi-proxy analysis of redox conditions in the Caledonian foreland basin to Baltica from the early to the mid-Silurian. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Emma R. Haxen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2023.118416

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Stratigraphic architecture of the Tethyan Cenomanian-Turonian succession and OAE2 in the Dokan Area, Kurdistan Region, northeast Iraq

Abstract.

"This study provides a detailed examination of a condensed Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) succession of two sections (Dokan Dam and Khalakan) in the Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq, based on biostratigraphy (calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifera), carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry, and facies analysis. The C/T boundary in this region is characterized by a hiatus noticeable due to the absence of the Globigerinelloides benthonensis and Dicarinella hagni subzones and the lack of positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) peak b during the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2). [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Fadhil A. Lawa et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2023.105064

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Widespread marine euxinia along the western Yangtze Platform caused by oxygen minimum zone expansion during the Capitanian mass extinction

Abstract.

"The development of widespread marine anoxic and/or euxinic conditions has been proposed as a likely driver of the mid-Capitanian mass extinction. However, the driving mechanisms and spatiotemporal evolution of anoxia/euxinia remain poorly constrained. In order to decipher changes in marine redox conditions and their possible influence on the mid-Capitanian biotic crisis, we applied multiple geochemical indicators to three sections across a shelf-to-basin transect in the Middle Permian Kuhfeng and Lower Yinping formations of the Lower Yangtze Basin, South China. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Bolin Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104273

Read the full article here.


Oxygenation of the Baltoscandian shelf linked to Ordovician biodiversification

Abstract.

"Marine biodiversity increased markedly during the Ordovician Period (~487–443 million years ago). Some intervals within the Ordovician were associated with unusually rapid and prominent rises in taxonomic richness, the reasons for which remain debated. Links between increased oxygenation and biodiversification have been proposed, although supporting marine oxygen proxy data are limited. Here we present an expansive multi-site iodine-to-calcium (I/Ca) record from Lower–Middle Ordovician marine carbonates in Baltoscandia that provides a detailed account of the spatio-temporal development of oxygen conditions across this palaeoshelf. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Anders Lindskog et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-023-01287-z

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Oxygenated deep waters fed early Atlantic overturning circulation upon Antarctic glaciation

Abstract.

"The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) exerts a major control on the global distribution of heat, dissolved oxygen and carbon in the ocean. Yet the timing and cause of the inception of this system and its evolution since the start of the Cenozoic Era 65 million years ago (Ma) remain highly uncertain. Here we present records of microbial source indicators based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether distributions from the Cenozoic Northwest Atlantic Ocean (~43‒18 Ma) and use them to infer changes in AMOC-driven deep-ocean oxygenation. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Huanye Wang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-023-01292-2

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Paleoenvironmental significance of the carbon isotope record across the Cenomanian–Turonian transition and the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) ...

Full title: "Paleoenvironmental significance of the carbon isotope record across the Cenomanian–Turonian transition and the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) in the southeastern Neotethys, Zagros, Iran"

Abstract.

"A high–resolution carbon isotope record of pelagic carbonates (δ13Ccarb) from the Zagros Mountains, Iran, documents a 1.8‰ positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in the southeastern Neotethys during the Cenomanian–Turonian transition, corresponding to Ocean Anoxic Event (OAE2). The succession is controlled by biostratigraphy that includes the Rotalipora cushmani [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Borhan Bagherpour et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105574

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Driver of eustatic change during the early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (∼120 Ma)

Abstract.

"Sea-level changes exert an important control on oceanic circulation and climate evolution. Researchers have proposed that sea-level rise favored accumulation of sediments enriched in organic carbon during oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), although high-frequency sea-level changes and their controlling mechanism have remained poorly constrained. Here we present a detailed sedimentological and geochemical study on Aptian (Lower Cretaceous) shallow-water carbonates of the Dariyan Formation exposed in the Zagros fold belt of southern Iran. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Yiwei Xu et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104236

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Deglacial volcanism and reoxygenation in the aftermath of the Sturtian Snowball Earth

Abstract.

"The Cryogenian Sturtian and Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciations bracket a nonglacial interval during which Demosponge and green-algal biomarkers first appear. To understand the relationships between environmental perturbations and early animal evolution, we measured sulfur and mercury isotopes from the Datangpo Formation from South China. Hg enrichment with positive Δ199Hg excursion suggests enhanced volcanism, potentially due to depressurization of terrestrial magma chambers during deglaciation. [...]".

 

Source: Science Advances
Authors: Menghan Li et al.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.adh9502

Read the full article here.


The response of nitrogen and sulfur cycles to ocean deoxygenation across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary

Abstract.

"The Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) is a greenhouse episode of severe marine anoxia at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. This time interval is characterized by rising sea surface temperature, enhanced marine biological productivity, and widespread occurrence of organic-rich black shales. With an export of biological production to the deep ocean, organisms consume vast amounts of oxygen and subsequently utilize nitrate and sulfate as electron acceptors in organic matter degradation, thereby affecting biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and sulfur. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Ruixiang Zhai et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104182

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Indian Ocean glacial deoxygenation and respired carbon accumulation during mid-late Quaternary ice ages

Abstract.

"Reconstructions of ocean oxygenation are critical for understanding the role of respired carbon storage in regulating atmospheric CO2. Independent sediment redox proxies are essential to assess such reconstructions. Here, we present a long magnetofossil record from the eastern Indian Ocean in which we observe coeval magnetic hardening and enrichment of larger, more elongated, and less oxidized magnetofossils during glacials compared to interglacials over the last ~900 ka. Our multi-proxy records of redox-sensitive magnetofossils, trace element concentrations, and benthic foraminiferal Δδ13C consistently suggest a recurrence of lower O2 [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Liao Chang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-40452-1

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Sulfur isotopic evidence for global marine anoxia and low seawater sulfate concentration during the Late Triassic

Abstract.

"Marine anoxia during the Late Triassic has mostly been reported from the western Tethysand Panthalassa, which were near the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), but whether it developed in global open oceans (e.g., the eastern Tethys) is unknown. Whether the marine anoxia was global or regional requires more research. Here, we present carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) and pyrite δ34Spy data for the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic interval from the Wenquan Section in Qiantang Basin, Tibet. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Wei Tang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2023.105659

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Sulfate triple-oxygen-isotope evidence confirming oceanic oxygenation 570 million years ago

Abstract.

"The largest negative inorganic carbon isotope excursion in Earth’s history, namely the Ediacaran Shuram Excursion (SE), closely followed by early animal radiation, has been widely interpreted as a consequence of oceanic oxidation. However, the primary nature of the signature, source of oxidants, and tempo of the event remain contested. Here, we show that carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) from three different paleocontinents all have conspicuous negative 17O anomalies (Δ′17OCAS values down to −0.53‰) during the SE. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Haiyang Wang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-39962-9

Read the full article here.


Cretaceous southern high latitude benthic foraminiferal assemblages during OAE 2 at IODP Site U1516, Mentelle Basin, Indian Ocean

Abstract.

"At Site U1516 (Mentelle Basin, southeast Indian Ocean, offshore western Australia), the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 369 recovered an almost complete pelagic record of the Upper Cretaceous, including the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2). To better understand paleoenvironmental changes across OAE 2, 32 samples were analysed for benthic foraminiferal abundance data that represent one of the few benthic foraminiferal datasets spanning the OAE 2 in the southern high latitudes. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Erik Wolfgring et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105555

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Redox-sensitive elements of Ediacaran black shales in South China with implications for a widespread anoxic ocean

Abstract.

"The high enrichment of redox-sensitive elements (RSEs), Mo, U, V, and Cr, in Ediacaran shales was attributed to the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (NOE). However, recent studies have shown that contemporaneous shales from NW Canada do not exhibit RSE enrichment, whereas those from South China exhibit varying degrees of RSE enrichment. Here we investigate RSE records in a broader spatial and temporal distribution of shales within the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation from South China. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Yufei Hao et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2023.105670

Read the full article here.


Role of climate variability on deep-water dynamics and deoxygenation during sapropel deposition ...

Full title: "Role of climate variability on deep-water dynamics and deoxygenation during sapropel deposition: New insights from a palaeoceanographic empirical approach"

Abstract.

"Modern marine settings are experiencing rapid deoxygenation mainly forced by global warming and anthropogenic eutrophication. Therefore, studies that assess the role of climate variability in large spatiotemporal deoxygenations during past climate changes are needed to better comprehend the consequences of the current global warming and ocean deoxygenation. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Ricardo D. Monedero-Contreras et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111601

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A well-oxygenated eastern tropical Pacific during the warm Miocene

Abstract.

"The oxygen content of the oceans is susceptible to climate change and has declined in recent decades, with the largest effect in oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs), that is, mid-depth ocean regions with oxygen concentrations <5 μmol kg−1 (ref.). Earth-system-model simulations of climate warming predict that ODZs will expand until at least 2100. The response on timescales of hundreds to thousands of years, however, remains uncertain. Here we investigate changes in the response of ocean oxygenation during the warmer-than-present Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO; 17.0–14.8 million years ago (Ma)). [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Anya V. Hess et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06104-6

Read the full article here.


Mercury isotope evidence for recurrent photic-zone euxinia triggered by enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs during the Late Devonian mass extinction

Abstract.

"Widespread oceanic anoxia marked by globally extensive deposition of organic-rich black shale during the Late Devonian was a major factor in the mass extinctions at the Frasnian-Famennian (FFB, ∼372 million years ago) and Devonian-Carboniferous boundaries (DCB, ∼359 million years ago), although the triggers for these deoxygenation events are still under debate. Here, we apply a novel paleoredox proxy, Hg isotopes, to investigate Late Devonian ocean redox variation and its causes. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Wang Zheng et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2023.118175

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Oceanic anoxic events, photic-zone euxinia, and controversy of sea-level fluctuations during the Middle-Late Devonian

Abstract.

"This paper reviews global records of anoxic events of the Middle Devonian – earliest Mississippian, as well as the possible triggers and controls of these events. These “anoxic events” are complex multistage paleoenvironmental disturbances manifested in multiple proxies, which we showcase with the Horn River Group (HRG) – a succession of basinal organic-rich shales and cherts deposited during the latest Eifelian – earliest Late Frasnian(∼386–373 My ago) on the western continental margin of Laurentia near the paleo-equator. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Pavel Kabanov et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2023.104415

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Spatial and Temporal Redox Heterogeneity Controlled by a Fe(II), Anoxic Upwelling System in the Early Mesoproterozoic Ocean

Abstract. 

"The availability of oxygen and nutrients during the Mesoproterozoic (1.6–1.0 Ga) is thought to influence the rate of eukaryote evolution. The cause of the transition from low productivity in the upper Wumishan Formation to organic-rich sediments in the Hongshuizhuang Formation remains unknown. We report FeHR/FeT, Fepy/FeHR, MoEF, UEF, VEF, and [Ce/Ce*]SN in one core of the Yanliao Basin to study the redox evolution and compare it with other sections in different depths of the Yanliao Basin to get clues of the spatial and temporal redox heterogeneity. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Mingze Ye et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2023GL103598

Read the full article here.


Salinity variations of the inner Yangtze Sea during the Ordovician-Silurian transition and its influences on marginal marine euxinia

Abstract.

"The Ordovician-Silurian transition (OST) is a critical geological interval, during which dramatic climatic, environmental and biological changes occurred. Although expanded euxinic conditions have been regarded as one of the main causes of Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME), the controls of euxinia remain the topic of debate. In this study, we evaluate the paleosalinity conditions of the inner Yangtze Sea (IYS) during the OST using a combination of paleosalinity proxies (B/Ga, Sr/Ba, and S/TOC). [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Guangyao Cao et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104129

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Redox conditions and ecological resilience during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in the Western Interior Seaway

Abstract. 

"Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) are important geological events that may be analogues to future climate-driven deoxygenation of our oceans. Much of the global ocean experienced anoxic conditions during the Cenomanian–Turonian OAE (OAE2; ∼94 Ma), whereas the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) experienced oxygenation at this time. Here, organic geochemical and palynological data generated from Cenomanian–Turonian age sediments from five sites in the WIS are used to investigate changing redox and ecological conditions across differing palaeoenvironments and palaeolatitudes. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Libby J. Robinson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2023.111496

Read the full article here.


Global oceanic anoxia linked with the Capitanian (Middle Permian) marine mass extinction

Abstract. 

"The timing and causation of the Capitanian (late Middle Permian) biocrisis remain controversial. Here, a detailed uranium-isotopic (δ238U) profile was generated for the mid-Capitanian to lower Wuchiapingian of the Penglaitan section (the Guadalupian/Lopingian Permian global stratotype) in South China for the purpose of investigating relationships between the biocrisis and coeval oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). Negative δ238U excursions indicate two distinct OAEs, a mid-Capitanian (OAE-C1) and an end-Capitanian (OAE-C2) event. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Huyue Song et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2023.118128

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Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events and the Associated Black Shale Deposits as a Potential Source of Energy

Abstract. 

"Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) are considered as periods of oxygen deficiency in many oceans; accompanied by accumulation of organic-rich black shales. Mesozoic anoxic events were recognized based on the presence of black shales that are rich in organic matter. The most significant anoxic events during the Mesozoic are the Early Toarcian, the Early Aptian, and the Cenomanian–Turonian. The less significant events are the Valanginian-Hauterivian, the Hauterivian-Barremian, the Aptian-Albian, the Late Albian, the Albian-Cenomanian, and the Coniacian-Santonian. [...]".

 

Source: Springer Nature
Authors: Tarek Anan & Adam El-Shahat 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-95637-0_7

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Phytoplankton dynamics and nitrogen cycling during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Cenomanian/Turonian) in the upwelling zone of the NE proto-North Atlantic

Abstract. 

"The Cenomanian-Turonian (Late Cretaceous) climate warming was closely coupled to profound perturbations of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. The occurrence of organic matter-rich sediments across various depositional environments of the proto-North Atlantic hereby marks severe oxygen-deficient conditions, culminating in Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 2) at the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary. Here we combine bulk, isotope and molecular geochemical techniques to characterize trends in organic matter accumulation and its relationship to biogeochemical cycling (nitrogen, carbon) and marine phytoplankton community shifts [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Wolfgang Ruebsam & Lorenz Schwark
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104117

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Reconstructing ocean oxygenation changes from U/Ca and U/Mn in foraminiferal coatings: Proxy validation and constraints on glacial oxygenation changes

Abstract. 

"Deep-sea oxygen concentrations reflect combined effects of air-sea exchange in high-latitude surface waters, ventilation through ocean circulation and the organic carbonremineralization at depth. Reconstruction of past bottom water oxygen (BWO) concentrations has been challenging due to limitations of each existing BWO proxy whose fidelity may be complicated by diagenetic or depositional factors. Therefore, evaluations on BWO changes with multi-proxy approach are always preferred. In this study, we exploit the authigenic uranium content on mixed planktonic foraminiferal coatings as a BWO proxy by presenting new foraminiferal [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Rong Hu et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2023.108028

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Molybdenum isotope evidence from restricted-basin mudstones for an intermediate extent of oxygenation in the late Ediacaran ocean

Abstract. 

"The Mo isotope composition of late Ediacaran global seawater and the global extent of ocean oxygenation are still debated due to the complex controls on sedimentary Mo isotope compositions and the rarity with which sediments directly capture global seawater Mo isotope compositions. Deep-water sulfidic sediments from modern severely restricted basins like the Black Sea have the best chance of capturing global seawater Mo isotope compositions. However, few studies have focused on sedimentary Mo isotope variations and their causes in late Ediacaran restricted basins. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Zhaozhao Tan et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2023.121410

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Manganous water column in the Tethys Ocean during the Permian-Triassic transition

Abstract. 

"Ocean anoxia was one of the key killing mechanisms responsible for the end-Permian mass extinction (∼252 Ma). However, the temporal evolution and the triggering mechanisms of the end-Permian anoxia are controversial, with the current view being that the water column deoxygenation was a spatially and temporally heterogeneous event. Here, we use cerium-anomalies, uranium contents and rare earth element and yttrium (REY) compositions measured on the carbonate fraction of samples from two marine sections in Armenia and South China to constrain the evolution of end-Permian marine anoxia. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Johann Müller et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2023.104067 

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Basin-scale reconstruction of euxinia and Late Devonian mass extinctions

Abstract. 

"The Devonian–Carboniferous transition marks a fundamental shift in the surface environment primarily related to changes in ocean–atmosphere oxidation states, resulting from the continued proliferation of vascular land plants that stimulated the hydrological cycle and continental weathering, glacioeustasy, eutrophication and anoxic expansion in epicontinental seas, and mass extinction events. Here we present a comprehensive spatial and temporal compilation of geochemical data from 90 cores across the entire Bakken Shale (Williston Basin, North America). [...]".

 

Source: Nature 
Authors: Swapan K. Sahoo et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-05716-2

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Rare earth element signatures of Doushantuo cap dolostones capture an increase in oxygen in the anoxic Ediacaran ocean

Abstract. 

"The Rare Earth Element (REE) systematics of the post-Marinoan cap dolostones reflect the marine redox conditions and chemistry in the immediate aftermath of the snowball Earth. Rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) compositions in the Doushantuo cap dolostones that directly overlie Nantuo glacial diamictites in south China are determined from the inner shelf to the slope. In general, shale-normalized REY patterns (REYSN) of the cap dolostones show significant fractionations that are characterized by light REE depletion, slight middle REE enrichment relative to the light and heavy REEs, positive Eu anomalies, and slightly super-chondritic Y/Ho ratios. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Min Ren & Ruifan Li
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2023.106343

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Arctic deep-water anoxia and its potential role for ocean carbon sink during glacial periods

Abstract. 

"Deep water freshening beneath pan-Arctic ice shelves has recently been proposed based on the absence of excess thorium in glacial Arctic sediments. This profound proposal requires scrutiny of Arctic paleohydrology during past glacial periods. Here, we present structural and geochemical results of inorganic authigenic carbonates in deep-sea glacimarine sediments from the Mendeleev Ridge, western Arctic Ocean over the last 76 kyr. Our results suggest that Polar Deep Water in the western Arctic became brackish and anoxic during stadial periods. We argue that sediment-laden hyperpycnal meltwater discharged from paleo-ice sheets filled much of the water column [...]".

 

Source: Nature 
Authors: Kwangchul Jang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-023-00708-6

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Global ocean redox changes before and during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

Abstract. 

"Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events are recognized as widespread deposits of marine organic-rich mudrocks temporally associated with mass extinctions and large igneous province emplacement. The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event is one example during which expanded ocean anoxia is hypothesized in response to environmental perturbations associated with emplacement of the Karoo–Ferrar igneous province. However, the global extent of total seafloor anoxia and the relative extent of euxinic (anoxic and sulfide-rich) and non-euxinic anoxic conditions during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event are poorly constrained. [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Alexandra Kunert & Brian Kendall
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-36516-x

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Euxinia and hydrographic restriction in the Tethys Ocean: Reassessing global oceanic anoxia during the early Toarcian

Abstract. 

"Despite carbon-cycle perturbations at a global scale during the early Toarcian, the extent of anoxia during the ∼182-Ma Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) remains in debate. A common factor in the development of oceanic anoxia is watermass restriction, which is thought to have been important in the NW European Seaway, but whose influence elsewhere is relatively unstudied. Here, we analyze Mo/TOC (a proxy for watermass restriction) and redox proxies (e.g., Corg/P) in two sections of the Asturian Basin (northern Iberian Paleomargin), and we integrate these results with data from a suite of global Toarcian sections in order to reassess [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Javier Fernández-Martínez et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.104026

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Marine osmium‑uranium‑sulfur isotope evidence for the interaction of volcanism and ocean anoxia during the Middle Pleistocene

Abstract.

"Before the Quaternary, the Earth experienced a series of environmental perturbations. The causal links between large volcanic events, extreme climatic change, and ocean anoxia have been examined in the context of these perturbations. However, to date, the correlation between oceanic anoxia and large volcanic activity in the Pleistocene remains poorly constrained. Identifying the physical processes that can control changes to the marine osmium, uranium, and sulfur isotope ratios is critical to understanding how volcanic activity, climate changes, and ocean anoxia have coevolved throughout the Quaternary. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Wenlong Pei et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2022.111360

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Spatial heterogeneity in benthic foraminiferal assemblages tracks regional impacts of paleoenvironmental change across Cretaceous OAE2

Abstract. 

"The impact of global climate events on local ecosystems can vary spatially. Understanding this potential heterogeneity can illuminate which environments will be most impacted and the proximal drivers of ecosystem responses. Cenomanian–Turonian marine deposits of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) record paleoceanographic changes associated with the Greenhorn transgression and the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2). They provide an ideal setting to study basin-wide paleoecological responses during a global perturbation. [...]".

 

Source: Cambridge University Press
Authors: Raquel Bryant & Christina L. Belanger
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/pab.2022.47

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Marine bioturbation collapse during Early Jurassic deoxygenation: implications for post-extinction marine ecosystem functioning

Abstract. 

"Climate change is undermining the health and integrity of seafloor ecosystems, with declines in bioturbation expected to impact future ecosystem functioning. We explored changes in the nature and degree of bioturbation during Early Jurassic global warming and ocean deoxygenation. Understanding how these communities responded can help anticipate how bioturbation and ecosystem functioning might change over large spatial and temporal scales. Trace and body fossils from outcrop and core in the Cleveland Basin, UK show how healthy seafloor communities deteriorated through the Pliensbachian spinatum Zone, and macroinfaunal behaviour [...]".

 

Source: Geological Society of London
Authors: Bryony A. Caswell & Liam Herringshaw
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/SP529-2022-226

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No evidence for expansion of global ocean euxinia during the base Stairsian mass extinction event (Tremadocian, Early Ordovician)

Abstract.

"A Tremadocian (Early Ordovician, base Stairsian North American Stage) mass extinction event is recorded globally in rocks from several ancient continents and is accompanied by a globally correlated positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE; the largest during the Early Ordovician). In this study, elemental concentrations and uranium isotope compositions (δ238U) were measured for carbonate samples from three sections (along a proximal-to-distal transect: Ibex area, Shingle Pass, Meiklejohn Peak, respectively) in the Great Basin to test the role of ocean anoxia/euxinia on the base Stairsian mass extinction event. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Xinze Lu et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2022.11.028

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Vanadium isotope evidence for widespread marine oxygenation from the late Ediacaran to early Cambrian

Abstract. 

"Early animals experienced multiple-phase radiations and extinctions from the late Ediacaran to early Cambrian. Oxygen likely played an important role in these evolutionary events, but detailed marine redox evolution during this period remains highly debated. The emerging vanadium (V) isotope system can better capture short-term perturbations to global ocean redox conditions. In this study, we analyzed V isotope compositions [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Wei Wei et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117942

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Shallow- and deep-ocean Fe cycling and redox evolution across the Pliensbachian–Toarcian boundary and Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event in Panthalassa

Abstract.

"The late Pliensbachian to early Toarcian was characterized by major climatic and environmental changes, encompassing the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, or Jenkyns Event, ∼183 Ma) and the preceding Pliensbachian–Toarcian boundary event (Pl/To). Information on seawater redox conditions through this time interval has thus far come mainly from European sections deposited in hydrographically restricted basins, and hence our understanding of the redox evolution of the open ocean (and in particular Panthalassa – the largest ocean to have existed) is limited. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Wenhan Chen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117959

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Calcium isotope ratios of malformed foraminifera reveal biocalcification stress preceded Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

Abstract. 

"Ocean acidification causes biocalcification stress. The calcium isotope composition of carbonate producers can archive such stress because calcium isotope fractionation is sensitive to precipitation rate. Here, we synthesize morphometric observations of planktic foraminifera with multi-archive calcium isotope records from Gubbio, Italy and the Western Interior Seaway spanning Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (~94 million years ago). Calcium isotope ratios increase ~60 thousand years prior to the event. [...]". 

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Gabriella D. Kitch et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00641-0

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Carbon pump dynamics and limited organic carbon burial during OAE1a

Abstract. 

"Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) are conspicuous intervals in the geologic record that are associated with the deposition of organic carbon (OC)-rich marine sediment, linked to extreme biogeochemical perturbations, and characterized by widespread ocean deoxygenation. Mechanistic links between the marine biological carbon pump (BCP), redox conditions, and organic carbon burial during OAEs, however, remain poorly constrained. In this work we reconstructed the BCP in the western Tethys Ocean across OAE1a (~120 Mya) using sediment geochemistry and OC mass accumulation rates (OCAcc). [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Kohen W. Bauer et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12538

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Intermediate water circulation drives distribution of Pliocene Oxygen Minimum Zones

Abstract. 

"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) play a critical role in global biogeochemical cycling and act as barriers to dispersal for marine organisms. OMZs are currently expanding and intensifying with climate change, however past distributions of OMZs are relatively unknown. Here we present evidence for widespread pelagic OMZs during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma), the most recent epoch with atmospheric CO2 analogous to modern (~400-450 ppm). The global distribution of OMZ-affiliated planktic foraminifer, Globorotaloides hexagonus, and Earth System and Species Distribution Models show [...]". 

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Catherine V. Davis et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-35083-x

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The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone was similar in extent but weaker during the Last Glacial Maximum than Late Holocene

Abstract. 

"Quantifying past oxygen concentrations in oceans is crucial to improving understanding of current global ocean deoxygenation. Here, we use a record of pore density of the epibenthic foraminifer Planulina limbata from the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone to reconstruct oxygen concentrations in bottom waters from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Late Holocene at 17.5°S about 500 meters below the sea surface. We found that oxygen levels were 40% lower during the Last Glacial Maximum than during the Late Holocene (about 6.7 versus 11.1 µmol/kg, respectively). [...]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Nicolaas Glock et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00635-y 

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Geochemical and paleontological evidence of early Cambrian dynamic ocean oxygenation and its implications for organic matter accumulation in mudrocks

Abstract. 

"The evolution of global ocean oxygenation during the early Cambrian remains highly controversial, making it difficult to evaluate how environmental triggers play a role in controlling the organic matter (OM) accumulation in black shales. In this study, an integrated approach, including total organic carbon (TOC) content, major and trace element geochemistry, and microscope images, was systematically conducted in a continuous core well that penetrated through the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe (YJH)–Shuijingtuo (SJT, subdivided into SM Ⅰ, SM Ⅱ, SM Ⅲ, and SM Ⅳ members) successions (∼541-514Ma) at the Three Gorges area [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Yu Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2022.105958

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Volcanic trigger of ocean deoxygenation during Cordilleran ice sheet retreat

Abstract. 

"North Pacific deoxygenation events during the last deglaciation were sustained over millennia by high export productivity, but the triggering mechanisms and their links to deglacial warming remain uncertain. Here we find that initial deoxygenation in the North Pacific immediately after the Cordilleran ice sheet (CIS) retreat was associated with increased volcanic ash in seafloor sediments. Timing of volcanic inputs relative to CIS retreat suggests that regional explosive volcanism was initiated by ice unloading. […]".

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Jianghui Du et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05267-y

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Progressive expansion of seafloor anoxia in the Middle to Late Ordovician Yangtze Sea: Implications for concurrent decline of invertebrate diversity

Abstract. 

"The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) achieved its peak during the Middle Ordovician, likely in association with climatic cooling and a rise of atmospheric O2. However, unstable redox states developed widely in contemporaneous epeiric seas, challenging previous assumptions about sustained oceanic oxygenation driven by deep-ocean ventilation in the aftermath of Ordovician cooling. Here, we investigate two Middle-Upper Ordovician shale-dominated successions from intra-shelf basin and slope settings of the Yangtze Sea, South China. […]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Junpeng Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117858

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Two deep marine oxygenation events during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval in South China

Abstract. 

"Marine redox conditions through the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary interval have been intensively studied in South China with different redox proxies and from different sections. However, the resultant interpretations are inconsistent and sometimes even controversial, thereby impeding an overall understanding of global environmental changes and of causes for the P-T mass extinction events. This study summarizes and reevaluates these previous studies. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct
Authors: Yuzhu Ge & David P.G. Bond
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2022.104220

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Intensive ocean anoxia and large δ13Ccarb perturbations during the Carnian Humid Episode (Late Triassic) in Southwest China

Abstract. 

"The Carnian Humid Episode (CHE) represents a dramatic dry to wet climate transition in the Late Triassic. Manifestations of this climate shift and its associated biological and environmental responses are not fully understood. Here, we carried out carbonate carbon isotope, trace metal, and pyrite framboid analyses at Wolonggang in southwest China to trace palaeoenvironmental changes during this critical interval. The CHE at Wolonggang is marked by the development of fine laminated carbonaceous siltstones and black shales overlying the intensely bioturbated Zhuganpo limestone deposited in the latest Julian 1. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Zaitian Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103942

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Iron deposition during recovery from Late Devonian oceanic anoxia: Implications of the geochemistry of the Kawame ferromanganese deposit, Nedamo Belt

Abstract. 

"The Late Devonian, during which one of the “Big Five” Phanerozoic mass extinction events occurred, was one of the most important time intervals in Earth history. Nevertheless, the paucity of deep-sea records due to subduction has hampered elucidation of the pelagic environment during the Late Devonian in Panthalassa. However, ancient hydrothermal ferromanganese sediments, which were deposited on the abyssal seafloor and then accreted onto continental margins, are preserved as umber deposits and exposed in accretionary prisms. These sediments can provide key information to characterize the paleo-ocean. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Yusuke Kuwahara et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103920

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Plate tectonics controls ocean oxygen levels

Abstract. 

"Variations in ocean oxygen levels during Earth’s history have been linked to evolution and mass extinctions. Simulations now suggest that the configuration of the continents has a substantial impact on ocean oxygenation. [...]". 

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Katrin J. Meissner & Andreas Oschlies
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-02187-9

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Constraining marine anoxia under the extremely oxygenated Permian atmosphere using uranium isotopes in calcitic brachiopods and marine carbonates

Abstract. 

"The redox chemistry change in ancient oceans has profoundly shaped the evolutionary trajectories of animals. Uranium isotopes (U) in marine carbonate sediments have widely been used to place quantitative constraints on the oxygenation state of the oceans through geological history. However, syndepositional and post-depositional diagenesis impose a positive and variable U offset in the carbonate sediments relative to contemporaneous seawater, leaving uncertainties on quantification of anoxic seafloor areas in the past. Studies from modern settings suggest that Low-Magnesium Calcite (LMC) in articulate brachiopod shells are diagenetic resistant materials that may faithfully record the U value of ancient seawater. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Wen-qian Wang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117714

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Environmental change and carbon-cycle dynamics during the onset of Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event 1a from a carbonate-ramp depositional system

Abstract. 

"We report the first high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical record of the negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) at the onset of the early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a from a carbonate-ramp depositional environment, analysed from a well core from c. 2500 m depth, 100 km offshore Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Time-series analysis of stable oxygen isotope values and concentrations of Si, Al, and Ti resulted in durations of the C3 and C4 segments of the CIE that support relative completeness of the C3 segment and high sediment preservation rates of c. 13 cm/kyr of the studied sedimentary sequence. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Thomas Steuber et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2022.111086

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A Depth-Transect of Ocean Deoxygenation During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: Magnetofossils in Sediment Cores From the Southeast Atlantic

Abstract. 

"The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma) presents a past analog for future global warming. Previous studies provided evidence for major loss of dissolved oxygen during the PETM, although understanding the degree and distribution of oxygen loss poses challenges. Magnetofossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria are sensitive to redox conditions in sediments and water columns, and have been used to reconstruct paleoredox conditions over a range of geological settings. [...]".

 

Source: JGR Solid Earth
Authors: Pengfei Xue et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JB024714

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Ventilation changes drive orbital-scale deoxygenation trends in the late Cretaceous ocean

Abstract. 

"Mechanisms that drive cyclicity in marine sediment deposits during hothouse climate periods in response to Earth’s orbit variations remain debated. Orbital cycles fingerprint in the oceanographic records results from the combined effect of terrestrial (e.g. weathering-derived nutrient supply, freshwater discharge) and oceanic (e.g. productivity, oxygenation) processes, whose respective contribution remains to be clarified. [...]".

 

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Anta-Clarisse Sarr et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL099830

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Ironstone as a proxy of Paleozoic ocean oxygenation

Abstract. 

"Marine ironstone is a Phanerozoic biochemical sedimentary rock that contains abundant primary iron. Although rare, ironstone is conspicuous in the Paleozoic sedimentary record. Its iron source remains contentious, with traditional models invoking a continentally derived source. Increasing sedimentologic evidence suggests that many Paleozoic ironstones formed along favourably oriented continental margins where coastal upwelling delivered ferruginous waters, with the postulated source of iron being deep-ocean hydrothermal fluids. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Edward J. Matheson et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117715

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LIP volcanism (not anoxia) tracked by Cr isotopes during Ocean Anoxic Event 2 in the proto-North Atlantic region

Abstract.

"Chromium is a redox sensitive element that exhibits a large range of isotopic compositions in Earth’s surface environments because of Cr(VI)-Cr(III) transformations. This property of Cr has been exploited as a tracer of Earth’s oxygenation history using marine sediments. However, paleoredox applications using Cr are difficult to implement due to its complicated cycling, which creates spatial variability in seawater δ53Cr values. Applications are further hindered by the potential for variability in the major inputs of Cr, such as submarine volcanism, to mask redox processes. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Lucien Nana Yobo et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2022.06.016

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Continental configuration controls ocean oxygenation during the Phanerozoic

Abstract. 

"The early evolutionary and much of the extinction history of marine animals is thought to be driven by changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations ([O2]) in the ocean. In turn, [O2] is widely assumed to be dominated by the geological history of atmospheric oxygen (pO2). Here, by contrast, we show by means of a series of Earth system model experiments how continental rearrangement during the Phanerozoic Eon drives profound variations in ocean oxygenation and induces a fundamental decoupling in time between upper-ocean and benthic [O2]. [...]". 

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Alexandre Pohl et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05018-z 

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Low oxygen levels with high redox heterogeneity in the late Ediacaran shallow ocean: Constraints from I/(Ca + Mg) and Ce/Ce* of the Dengying Formation

Abstract. 

"Most previous studies focused on the redox state of the deep water, leading to an incomplete understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution of the redox-stratified ocean during the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition. In order to decode the redox condition of shallow marine environments during the late Ediacaran, this study presents I/(Ca + Mg), carbon and oxygen isotope, major, trace, and rare earth element data of subtidal to peritidal dolomite from the Dengying Formation at Yangba, South China. [...]".

 

Source: Wiley Online Library
Authors: Yi Ding et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12520

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Major sulfur cycle perturbations in the Panthalassic Ocean across the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary and the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

Abstract. 

"The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, ~183 Ma) was characterized by marine deoxygenation and the burial of organic-rich sediments at numerous localities worldwide. However, the extent of marine anoxia and its impact on the sulfur cycle during the T-OAE is currently poorly understood. Here, stable sulfur isotopes of reduced metal-bound sulfur (δ34Spyrite) and pyrite sulfur concentrations (SPY) have been analyzed across the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary (Pl-To) and the T-OAE from the Sakahogi and Sakuraguchi-dani sections (Japan), which were deposited in the deep and shallow Panthalassic Ocean, respectively. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Wenhan Chen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103884

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Intensive peatland wildfires during the Aptian–Albian oceanic anoxic event 1b: Evidence from borehole SK-2 in the Songliao Basin, NE China

Abstract. 

"The Cretaceous has been considered a “high-fire” world accompanied by widespread by-products of combustion in the rock record. The mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event 1b (OAE1b) is marked by one of the major perturbations in the global carbon cycle characterized by deposition of organic-rich sediments in both marine and terrestrial settings. However, our understanding is still limited on changes in wildfire activity during OAE1b period. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Zhi-Hui Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jop.2022.06.002

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Mo isotope composition of the 0.85 Ga ocean from coupled carbonate and shale archives: Some implications for pre-Cryogenian oxygenation

Abstract.

"This study addresses marine palaeoredox conditions of the mid-Neoproterozoic by analysing the Mo isotope, trace element, and U-Th-Pb isotope compositions of shallow water microbial carbonate, deep water pelagic carbonate, and shale from the Stone Knife Formation (SKF) in NW Canada. The U-Th-Pb isotope SKF systematics of reef microbialite carbonates, and the moderately expressed negative Ce anomalies are consistent with the presence of dissolved O2 in the surface waters. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Edel Mary O'Sullivan et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2022.106760

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Nitrogen isotope evidence for oxygenated upper ocean during the Cryogenian interglacial period

Abstract.

"The Cryogenian interglacial period have witnessed dramatic changes in climate, oceanic environment and biological evolution. The nitrogen isotopic composition, as an important biogeochemical proxy, has the potential to track both the nutrient cycling and redox conditions in the past. However, nitrogen isotopic data during this interglacial time is rather limited. Here, we present integrated data for nitrogen isotopes (δ15N), as well as organic carbon isotopes (δ13Corg), iron (Fe) speciation, pyrite morphology and trace elements from the Cryogenian interglacial Datangpo Formation derived from a drill core from South China to figure out the nitrogen cycling and coeval redox states. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Guangyou Zhu et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2022.120929

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Isotopic evidence for changes in the mercury and zinc cycles during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in the northwestern Tethys, Austria

Abstract. 

"The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2, ca. 94 Ma) was one of the most extreme carbon cycle and climatic perturbations of the Phanerozoic Eon. Widespread deposition of organic-rich shales during OAE 2 has been attributed to a rapid rise in atmospheric CO2, global heating, and marine anoxia triggered by intense large igneous province (LIP) volcanism. Here, we present new Hg and Zn elemental and isotopic analyses from samples spanning OAE 2 in a hemipelagic section from Rehkogelgraben, Austria, which was part of the north-western Tethys. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Hanwei Yao et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103881

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Uranium isotope reconstruction of ocean deoxygenation during OAE 2 hampered by uncertainties in fractionation factors and local U-cycling

Abstract. 

"A δ238U record of changing ocean anoxia during OAE 2 is reconstructed using seawater derived U in pelagic marine sediments in the Portland #1 core in the south-central region of the Western Interior Seaway of North America. The peak negative excursion of 1.4‰ in authigenic sedimentary δ238U values is consistent with expansion of marine anoxia during the event, but the size of the shift is much larger than the negative excursions recorded in two other published records. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Brayden S. McDonald et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2022.05.010

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Geochemical evidence from the Kioto Carbonate Platform (Tibet) reveals enhanced terrigenous input and deoxygenation during the early Toarcian

Abstract.

"The early Toarcian, as registered in a variety of sedimentary archives, was characterized by an abrupt negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) typically superimposed on a long-term positive trend, and was accompanied by significant climatic and environmental changes. However, the changes in continental weathering influx and oceanic deoxygenation in shallow waters and their possible role in causing carbonate-platform crises in low latitudes remains poorly constrained. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Zhong Han et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103887

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Decoupled oxygenation of the Ediacaran ocean and atmosphere during the rise of early animals

Abstract. 

"The Ediacaran Period (∼635 to 541 Ma) witnessed the early diversification and radiation of metazoans, in the form of the Ediacaran Biota. This biological revolution, beginning at ∼575 Ma, has been widely attributed to a temporally restricted episode of deeper ocean oxygenation, potentially caused by a contemporaneous rise in atmospheric oxygen levels. However, quantitative geochemical-record-driven estimates of Ediacaran atmospheric and oceanic redox evolution are lacking, and hence possible links between oceanic and atmospheric oxygenation remain speculative. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Wei Shi et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117619

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Enhanced phosphorus recycling during past oceanic anoxia amplified by low rates of apatite authigenesis

Abstract.

"Enhanced recycling of phosphorus as ocean deoxygenation expanded under past greenhouse climates contributed to widespread organic carbon burial and drawdown of atmospheric CO2. Redox-dependent phosphorus recycling was more efficient in such ancient anoxic marine environments, compared to modern anoxic settings, for reasons that remain unclear. Here, we show that low rates of apatite authigenesis in organic-rich sediments can explain the amplified phosphorus recycling in ancient settings as reflected in highly elevated ratios of organic carbon to total phosphorus. [...]".

 

Source: Science Advances 
Authors: Nina M. Papadomanolaki et al.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abn2370

Read the full article here.


Constraints on Early Paleozoic deep-ocean oxygen concentrations from the iron geochemistry of the Bay of Islands ophiolite

Abstract. 

"The deep ocean is generally considered to have changed from anoxic in the Precambrian to oxygenated by the Late Paleozoic (∼420–400 Ma) due to changes in atmospheric oxygen concentrations. When the transition occurred, that is, in the Early Paleozoic or not until the Late Paleozoic, is less well constrained. To address this, we measured Fe3+/ΣFe of volcanic rocks, sheeted dykes, gabbros, and ultramafic rocks from the Early Paleozoic (∼485 Ma) Bay of Islands (BOI) ophiolite as a proxy for hydrothermal alteration in the presence or absence of O2 derived from deep marine fluids. [...]".

 

Source: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 
Authors: Daniel A. Stolper et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GC010196

Read the full article here.


Deglacial restructuring of the Eastern equatorial Pacific oxygen minimum zone

Abstract. 

"Oxygenation in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific is responsive to ongoing climate change in the modern ocean, although whether the region saw a deglacial change in extent or position of the Oxygen Minimum Zone remains poorly constrained. Here, stable isotopes from the shells of an Oxygen Minimum Zone-dwelling planktic foraminifer are used to reassess the position of the mid-water Oxygen Minimum Zone relative to both the thermocline and benthos. Oxygen isotopes record a rapid shoaling of the Oxygen Minimum Zone towards the thermocline associated with Heinrich Stadial 1 and persisting through the deglaciation. [...]". 

 

Source: Communications Earth & Environment
Authors: Catherine V. Davis
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00477-8

Read the full article here.


Linkage of the late Cambrian microbe-metazoan transition (MMT) to shallow-marine oxygenation during the SPICE event

Abstract.

"Microbe-metazoan transitions (MMTs), representing a switch from microbe-mediated to metazoan-mediated carbonate production, have been linked to major changes in Earth-surface conditions. The ‘late Cambrian MMT’ (nomen novum), during which microbial reefs were replaced by maceriate and lithistid sponge reefs, coincided with a sharp rise in atmospheric O2 levels attributed to the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) at ~497–494 Ma. However, relationships between atmospheric oxygenation, marine redox conditions, and the MMT have not been thoroughly investigated to date. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Lei Zhang et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103798

Read the full article here.


Ostracod response to monsoon and OMZ variability over the past 1.2 Myr

Abstract. 

"We present the first continuous middle through late Pleistocene record of fossil ostracods from the Maldives in the northern Indian Ocean, derived from sediment cores taken at Site U1467 by Expedition 359 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). Site U1467 lies at 487 m water depth in the Inner Sea of the Maldives archipelago, an ideal place for studying the effects of the South Asian Monsoon (SAM) system on primary productivity, intermediate depth ocean circulation, and the regional oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Carlos A. Alvarez Zarikian et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2022.102105

Read the full article here.


Biotic induction and microbial ecological dynamics of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

Abstract. 

"Understanding the causal mechanisms of past marine deoxygenation is critical to predicting the long-term Earth systems response to climate change. However, the processes and events preceding widespread carbon burial coincident with oceanic anoxic events remain poorly constrained. Here, we report a comprehensive biomarker inventory enveloping Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 that captures microbial communities spanning epipelagic to benthic environments in the southern proto-North Atlantic Ocean. We identify an abrupt, sustained increase in primary productivity that predates Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 by ∼220 ± 4 thousand years, well before other geochemical proxies register biogeochemical perturbations. [...]". 

 

Source: Communications Earth & Environment 
Authors: Gregory T. Connock et al. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00466-x 

Read the full article here.


Oceanic anoxia and extinction in the latest Ordovician

Abstract.

"The Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) mass extinction (LOME) was marked by two discrete pulses of high species turnover rates attributed to glacial cooling (LOME-1) and subsequent expansion of anoxic marine conditions (LOME-2). However, the mechanisms and extent of global marine anoxia remain controversial. In this study, we present uranium isotope (U) data from a new Ordovician-Silurian (O-S) boundary carbonate section in the Southwest China to explore the extent/duration of the global marine anoxia, and links to the LOME. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct 
Authors: Mu Liu et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117553

Read the full article here.


Marine anoxia linked to abrupt global warming during Earth’s penultimate icehouse

Abstract.

"Piecing together the history of carbon (C) perturbation events throughout Earth’s history has provided key insights into how the Earth system responds to abrupt warming. Previous studies, however, focused on short-term warming events that were superimposed on longer-term greenhouse climate states. Here, we present an integrated proxy (C and uranium [U] isotopes and paleo CO2) and multicomponent modeling approach to investigate an abrupt C perturbation and global warming event (∼304 Ma) that occurred during a paleo-glacial state. We report pronounced negative C and U isotopic excursions coincident with a doubling of atmospheric CO2 partial pressure and a biodiversity nadir. [...]".

 

Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Authors: Jitao Chen et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2115231119

Read the full article here.


Geochemistry of sediments in contact with oxygen minimum zone of the eastern Arabian Sea: Proxy for palaeo-studies

Abstract. 

"The Arabian Sea encompasses oxygen minimum zone with denitrifying conditions. For the present study, sediments were collected across three transects off Goa transect (GT), Mangalore transect (MT) and Kochi transect (KT) in contact with water column dissolved oxygen (DO) range of 1.4–118.0 µM. Sediments were investigated for texture, clay mineralogy, total organic carbon (Corg), total nitrogen, CaCO3, δ15N, δ13C, metal content to infer their distribution with changing DO and their use as possible palaeo-proxies. The Corg (0.9–8.6%) is largely marine and δ15N from GT and MT preserves signatures of higher water column denitrification. [...]". 

 

Source: Journal of Earth System Science 

Authors: Pratima M. Kessarkar et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-022-01823-2 

Read the full article here.


Marine anoxia as a trigger for the largest Phanerozoic positive carbon isotope excursion: Evidence from carbonate barium isotope record

Abstract. 

"The mid-Ludfordian Lau carbon isotope excursion (Lau CIE) represents the largest positive carbon isotope excursion in the Phanerozoic (~9‰), coincident with the biodiversity loss of many marine animal clades. Two main explanations for the Lau CIE are enhanced organic carbon burial via increased marine productivity and preservation-driven expansion of anoxia. While these two explanations are not mutually exclusive, the main driver of Lau CIE is yet to be constrained. Here, we resolve this longstanding debate using barium isotopes (δ138 Ba) of marine carbonates deposited across the Lau CIE. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Feifei Zhang et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117421

Read the full article here.


Uranium isotope evidence for extensive shallow water anoxia in the early Tonian oceans

Abstract. 

"The Earth's redox evolution has been commonly assumed to have played a key role in shaping the evolutionary history of the biosphere. However, whether and how shifts in marine redox conditions are linked to key biotic events – foremost the rise of animals and the ecological expansion of eukaryotic algae in the late Proterozoic oceans – remains heavily debated. Our current picture of global marine redox evolution during this critical interval is incomplete. This is particularly the case for the Tonian Period (∼1.0 to ∼0.717 Ga), when animals may have diverged and when eukaryotic algae began their rise in ecological importance. Here, we present new uranium isotope (U) measurements from Tonian carbonates to fill this outstanding gap. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct 

Authors: Feifei Zhang et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117437

Read the full article here.


Placing North Pacific paleo-oxygenation records on a common scale using multivariate analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages

Abstract. 

"Dysoxic events are well-studied in Pleistocene and Holocene marine sediment records from the North Pacific using faunal, sedimentological, and geochemical paleo-oxygenation proxies. However, differences in proxy sensitivity and local conditions make it difficult to quantify the relative severity of dysoxia across the North Pacific. Here, we use multivariate analyses of taxonomically standardized benthic foraminiferal assemblages to quantitatively compare the severity and duration of dysoxic events at four intermediate depth sites within oxygen minimum zones in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA), Santa Barbara Basin, and Baja California Sur. Unlike previous faunal dissolved oxygen indices, the metric developed here incorporates the total faunal assemblage and is better correlated with co-registered geochemical proxies. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Sharon Sharon et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107412

Read the full article here.


Mid-Cretaceous marine Os isotope evidence for heterogeneous cause of oceanic anoxic events

Abstract. 

"During the mid-Cretaceous, the Earth experienced several environmental perturbations, including an extremely warm climate and Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Submarine volcanic episodes associated with formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs) may have triggered these perturbations. The osmium isotopic ratio (187Os/188Os) is a suitable proxy for tracing hydrothermal activity associated with the LIPs formation, but 187Os/188Os data from the mid-Cretaceous are limited to short time intervals. Here we provide a continuous high-resolution marine 187Os/188Os record covering all mid-Cretaceous OAEs. Several OAEs (OAE1a, Wezel and Fallot events, and OAE2) correspond to unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, suggesting that they were triggered by massive submarine volcanic episodes. However, minor OAEs (OAE1c and OAE1d), which do not show pronounced unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, were likely caused by enhanced monsoonal activity. [...]".

 

Source: Nature Communications 

Authors: Hironao Matsumoto et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27817-0

Read the full article here.


Chromium isotope evidence for oxygenation events in the Ediacaran ocean

Abstract. 

"Pulses of the Ediacaran ocean oxygenation were inferred from strong enrichments of redox-sensitive elements (RSEs; particularly Mo, V, U, Re) and negative pyritesulfur isotopes (δ34Spy) in black shales of the Doushantuo Formation in South China. These oceanic oxygenation events (OOEs) have been challenged by the lack of comparable RSE enrichments in correlative strata of northwestern Canada. Here we report four positive chromium isotope (δ53Cr) excursions with peak values (+0.79 ± 0.03‰ to +1.45 ± 0.06‰; 2SD) close to the average δ53Cr value of the modern ocean (+1.0 ± 0.3‰) at the intervals of OOEs, which are separated by low δ53Cr values close to that of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE, −0.124 ± 0.101‰). The positive δ53Cr excursions could be explained by episodic input of oxygenated water from the open ocean to the restricted Nanhua basin, or pulses of ocean oxygenation during the Ediacaran-early Cambrian. The two interpretations can explain the majority of the geochemical data available from the Wuhe section, but both have limitations. [...]". 

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Dongtao Xu et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2022.02.019

Read the full article here.


Covariation of Deep Antarctic Pacific Oxygenation and Atmospheric CO2 during the Last 770 kyr

Abstract. 

"We present new geochemical evidence of changes in oxygenation of the deep Antarctic Pacific over the last 770 kyr. Our data are derived from redox-sensitive metals and export production proxies extracted from gravity core ANT34/A2-10 at 4217 m water depth. Our results show that oxygen levels in the deep Antarctic Zone (AZ) varied in line with the release of deeply sequestered remineralized carbon to the atmosphere during glacial–interglacial (G–IG) cycles, with lower oxygen concentrations and more carbon storage during glacial periods. Subsequent reductions in the amount of carbon stored at depth were closely associated with improved ventilation during glacial terminations. [...]".

 

Source: Lithosphere

Authors: Zheng Tang et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/2022/1835176

Read the full article here.


A transient oxygen increase in the Mesoproterozoic ocean at ∼1.44 Ga: Geochemical evidence from the Tieling Formation, North China Platform

Abstract.

"Oxygen availability is crucial for the evolution of eukaryotes in geological history, yet detailed Mesoproterozoic oceanic-atmospheric redox conditions remain enigmatic. In contrast to the generally accepted hypothesis of an anoxic mid-Proterozoic ocean and atmosphere, several transient oxygenation events may occur at the Earth’s surface during the Mesoproterozoic, especially for the period around 1.4 Ga. The North China Platform develops one of the most complete and continuous Mesoproterozoic stratigraphic successions globally, preserving key information on the redox state of the surface ocean–atmosphere system during the mid-Proterozoic. [...]".

 

Source: Science Direct

Authors: Yang Yu et al.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2021.106527

Read the full article here.


Calculating dissolved marine oxygen values based on an enhanced Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index

Abstract. 

"Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) trap greenhouse gases, reduce livable habitats, a critical factor for these changes is the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO). The frequently used tool to reconstruct DO values, the Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Index (BFOI), showed major shortcomings and lacks effectiveness. Therefore, we enhanced the BFOI and introduce enhanced BFOI (EBFOI) formulas by using all available data benthic foraminifers provide, calculating the whole livable habitat of benthic foraminifers, including bottom water oxygenation (BWO) and pore water oxygenation (PWO). Further, we introduce for the first time a transfer function to convert EBFOI vales directly into DO values, increasing efficiency by up to 38%. [...]".

 

Source: Nature Scientific Reports

Authors: Matthias Kranner et al. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05295-8

Read the full article here.


In oceanography, acoustics and hydrodynamics: An extended coupled (2+1)-dimensional Burgers system

Abstract.

"In oceanography, acoustics and hydrodynamics, people pay attention to the Burgers-type equations for different wave processes, one of which is an extended coupled (2+1)-dimensional Burgers system hereby under investigation. Based on the scaling transformation, Bell polynomials, Hirota operators and symbolic computation, we structure out two hetero-Bäcklund transformations, each of which to a solvable linear partial differential[...]"

 

Source: Science Direkt
Authors: Xin-YiGao et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjph.2020.11.017

Read the full article here.


Paleocene-Eocene volcanic segmentation of the Norwegian-Greenland seaway reorganized high-latitude ocean circulation

Abstract.

"The paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic development of the Norwegian–Greenland seaway remains poorly understood, despite its importance for the oceanographic and climatic conditions of the Paleocene–Eocene greenhouse world. Here we present analyses of the sedimentological and paleontological characteristics of Paleocene–Eocene deposits (between 63 and 47 million years old) in northeast Greenland, and investigate key unconformities and volcanic facies observed through seismic reflection imaging in offshore basins.[...]"

 

Source: Communications Earth & Environment
Authors: Jussi Hovikoski et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00249-w

Read the full article here.


Antarctic icebergs reorganize ocean circulation during Pleistocene glacials

Abstract.

"The dominant feature of large-scale mass transfer in the modern ocean is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The geometry and vigour of this circulation influences global climate on various timescales. Palaeoceanographic evidence suggests that during glacial periods of the past 1.5 million years the AMOC had markedly different features from today1; in the Atlantic basin, deep waters of Southern Ocean origin increased in volume while above them the core of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) shoaled2. An absence of evidence on the origin of this phenomenon means that the sequence of events leading to global glacial conditions remains unclear.[...]"

 

Source: Nature
Authors: Aidan Starr et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03094-7

Read the full article here.


The role of calcium in regulating marine phosphorus burial and atmospheric oxygen

Abstract.

"The marine phosphorus cycle plays a critical role in controlling the extent of global primary productivity and thus atmospheric pO2 on geologic time scales. However, previous attempts to model carbon–phosphorus-oxygen feedbacks have neglected key parameters that could shape the global P cycle. Here we present new diagenetic models to fully parameterize marine P burial. We have also coupled this diagenetic framework to a global carbon cycle model. We find that seawater calcium concentration, by strongly influencing carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) formation, is a key factor controlling global phosphorus cycling, and therefore plays[...]"

 

Source: Nature Communications 
Authors: Mingyu Zhao et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15673-3

Read the full article here.

 


Response of the western proto-North Atlantic margin to the early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a: an example from the Cupido platform margin

-Gulf of Mexico, NE Mexico

Abstract.

"Integrated microfacies and geochemical analyses conducted on five stratigraphic sections in northeastern Mexico (ancentral western margin of the proto-North Atlantic) reveal major paleoenvironmental changes in shallow water and pelagic environments in the prelude and run-up of the early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a. During the Barremian–Aptian transition, the replacement of photozoan rudist-coral by mesotrophic/eutrophic orbitolinid-miliolid communities in the Cupido platform occurred in association with increased nutrient input. [...]"

Source: Cretaceous Research
Authors: Fernando Núñez-Useche et al.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104488

Read the full article here.


Warm afterglow from the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event drives the success of deep-adapted brachiopods

Abstract.

"Many aspects of the supposed hyperthermal Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, Early Jurassic, c. 182 Ma) are well understood but a lack of robust palaeotemperature data severely limits reconstruction of the processes that drove the T-OAE and associated environmental and biotic changes. New oxygen isotope data from calcite shells of the benthic fauna suggest that bottom water temperatures in the western Tethys were elevated by c. 3.5 °C through the entire T-OAE. [...]"

Source: Scientific Reports
Auhtors: C. V. Ullmann et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-63487-6

Read the full article here.


High Resolution Osmium Data Record Three Distinct Pulses of Magmatic Activity During Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2)

Abstract.

"Oceanic anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) occurred at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (∼94.1 Ma) and was a time of profound global changes in ocean chemistry and the carbon cycle. This event was characterized by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) caused by massive organic carbon burial, global greenhouse temperatures, ocean deoxygenation, and changes in ocean life driven by large igneous province (LIP) activity. LIPS throughout the Phanerozoic have had dynamic magma flux, with episodes of major eruptions interspersed with periods of relatively less intense eruptions. [...]"

Source: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Authors: Daniel L. Sullivan et al.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2020.04.002

Read the full article here.


Fe isotope composition of Archean sulfides do not record progressive oxygenation of the ocean

Abstract.

"In the history of this continuously evolving planet, the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), which occurred at ca. 2.3 Ga (Bekker et al., 2004; Holland, 2006) was a critical environmental change. This event was first recognized by the disappearance of detrital uraninite, pyrite, and siderite, from the siliciclastic record, as well as by shales that do not contain appreciable amounts of redox-sensitive elements and paleosols that are not oxidized before ca. 2.3 Ga (Holland, 2006). [...]"

Source: Geology
Authors: Johanna Marin Carbonne
DOI: 10.1130/focus042020.1

Read the full article here.


Associations between redox‐sensitive trace metals and microbial communities in a Proterozoic ocean analogue

Abstract.

"Constraints on Precambrian ocean chemistry are dependent upon sediment geochemistry. However, diagenesis and metamorphism can destroy primary biosignatures, making it difficult to consider biology when interpreting geochemical data. Modern analogues for ancient ecosystems can be useful tools for identifying how sediment geochemistry records an active biosphere. The Middle Island Sinkhole (MIS) in Lake Huron is an analogue for shallow Proterozoic waters due to its low oxygen water chemistry and microbial communities that exhibit diverse metabolic functions at the sediment–water interface. [...]"

Source: Geobiology
Authors: Kathryn I. Rico
DOI: 10.1111/gbi.12388

Read the full article here.


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