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Extent of the annual Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone influences microbial community structure

Abstract.

"Rich geochemical datasets generated over the past 30 years have provided fine-scale resolution on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastal hypoxic (≤ 2 mg of O2 L-1) zone. In contrast, little is known about microbial community structure and activity in the hypoxic zone despite the implication that microbial respiration is responsible for forming low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. [...]"

Source: PLoS ONE
Authors: Lauren Gillies Campbell et al.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209055

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Assessment of time of emergence of anthropogenic deoxygenation and warming: insights from a CESM simulation from 850 to 2100 CE

Abstract.

"Marine deoxygenation and anthropogenic ocean warming are observed and projected to intensify in the future. These changes potentially impact the functions and services of marine ecosystems. A key question is whether marine ecosystems are already or will soon be exposed to environmental conditions not experienced during the last millennium. Using a forced simulation with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) over the period 850 to 2100, we find that anthropogenic deoxygenation and warming in the thermocline exceeded natural variability in, respectively, 60 % and 90 % of total ocean area. [...]"

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Angélique Hameau, Juliette Mignot Fortunat Joos
DOI: 10.5194/bg-16-1755-2019

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Remote and local drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability in the shallow oxygen minimum zone off Mauritania in June 2014

Abstract.

"Upwelling systems play a key role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles and are also of local relevance due to their high productivity and fish resources. To capture and understand the high spatial and temporal variability in physical and biogeochemical parameters found in these regions, novel measurement techniques have to be combined in an interdisciplinary manner. Here we use high-resolution glider-based physical–biogeochemical observations in combination with ship-based underwater vision profiler, sensor and bottle data to investigate the drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability across the shelf break off Mauritania in June 2014. [...]"

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Soeren Thomsen et al.
DOI: 10.5194/bg-16-979-2019

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N2O Emissions From the Northern Benguela Upwelling System

Abstract.

"The Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) is the most productive of all eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems and it hosts a well‐developed oxygen minimum zone. As such, the BUS is a potential hotspot for production of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas derived from microbially driven decay of sinking organic matter. Yet, the extent at which near‐surface waters emit N2O to the atmosphere in the BUS is highly uncertain. [...]"

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: D. L. Arévalo‐Martínez et al.
DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081648

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Proterozoic seawater sulfate scarcity and the evolution of ocean–atmosphere chemistry

Abstract.

"Oceanic sulfate concentrations are widely thought to have reached millimolar levels during the Proterozoic Eon, 2.5 to 0.54 billion years ago. Yet the magnitude of the increase in seawater sulfate concentrations over the course of the Eon remains largely unquantified. A rise in seawater sulfate concentrations has been inferred from the increased range of marine sulfide δ34S values following the Great Oxidation Event and was induced by two processes: enhanced oxidative weathering of sulfides on land, and the onset of marine sulfur redox cycling. [...]"

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Mojtaba Fakhraee et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0351-5

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Discrepancy in the Identification of the Atlantic/Pacific Front in the Central Arctic Ocean: NO Versus Nutrient Relationships

Abstract.

"Fronts in the NO parameter, a semiconservative tracer combining nitrate and dissolved oxygen, and dynamic height were observed in the central East Siberian Sea that distinguished Atlantic and Pacific contributions to the upper halocline of the Amerasian Basin during the summer of 2015. [...]"

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Matthew B. Alkire, Robert Rember and Igor Polyakov
DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081837

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Multi-faceted particle pumps drive carbon sequestration in the ocean

Abstract.

"The ocean’s ability to sequester carbon away from the atmosphere exerts an important control on global climate. The biological pump drives carbon storage in the deep ocean and is thought to function via gravitational settling of organic particles from surface waters. However, the settling flux alone is often insufficient to balance mesopelagic carbon budgets or to meet the demands of subsurface biota. [...]"

Source: Nature
Authors: Philip W. Boyd et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1098-2

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Organic carbon recycling in Baltic Sea sediments – An integrated estimate on the system scale based on in situ measurements

Abstract.

"In situ measured benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), a proxy for organic carbon (OC) oxidation or recycling rates, are used together with burial rates based on measured sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and vertical distribution of OC in the sediment solid phase to construct a benthic OC budget for the Baltic Sea system. [...]"

Source: Marine Chemistry
Authors: Madeleine M. Nilsson et al.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marchem.2018.11.004

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Hydroxylamine as a Potential Indicator of Nitrification in the Open Ocean

Abstract.

"Hydroxylamine (NH2OH), a short‐lived intermediate in the nitrogen cycle, is a potential precursor of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the ocean. However, measurements of NH2OH in the ocean are sparse. Here we present a data set of depth profiles of NH2OH from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean and the eastern tropical South Pacific and compare it to N2O, nitrate, and nitrite profiles under varying oxygen conditions. [...]"

Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Frederike Korth et al.
DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080466

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Sri Lanka's marine protection agency calls for tougher laws against ocean pollution

"COLOMBO, April 11 (Xinhua) -- Sri Lanka's Marine Environment Protection Authority on Thursday urged countries along the Bay of Bengal to draft stronger laws against polluting the oceans due to the formation of a dead zone in the center of the Bay of Bengal.

General Manager of the Marine Environment Protection Authority, Dr. P.B. Teney told Xinhua that authorities had discovered the formation of a dead zone in the Bay of Bengal which had spread across a 6000 square kilometer area and was 100 meters to 400 meters in depth. [...]"

Source: XinhuaNet

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