The ocean’s vital skin: Towards an integrated understanding of the sea surface microlayer
"Despite the huge extent of the ocean’s surface, until now relatively little attention has been paid to the sea surface microlayer (SML) as the ultimate interface where heat, momentum and mass exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere takes place. Via the SML, large-scale environmental changes in the ocean such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation and eutrophication potentially influence cloud formation, precipitation and the global radiation balance. Due to the deep connectivity between biological, chemical and physical processes, studies of the SML may reveal multiple sensitivities to global and regional changes. [...]"
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Anja Engel et al.
Impacts of ENSO on air-sea oxygen exchange: observations and mechanisms
"Models and observations of Atmospheric Potential Oxygen (APO ≃ O2 + 1.1*CO2) are used to investigate the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on air-sea O2 exchange. An atmospheric transport inversion of APO data from the Scripps flask network shows significant interannual variability in tropical APO fluxes that is positively correlated with the Niño3.4 index, indicating anomalous ocean outgassing of APO during El Niño. Hindcast simulations of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL) model show similar APO sensitivity to ENSO, differing from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) model, which shows an opposite APO response. [...]"
Source: Global Biochemical Cycles
Authors: Yassir A. Eddebbar et al.
Fixed-Nitrogen Loss Associated with Sinking Zooplankton Carcasses in a Coastal Oxygen Minimum Zone (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica)
"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are of key importance for pelagic fixed-nitrogen loss (N-loss) through microbial denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Recent studies document that zooplankton is surprisingly abundant in and around OMZs and that the microbial community associated with carcasses of a large copepod species mediates denitrification. Here, we investigate the complex N-cycling associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses exposed to the steep O2 gradient in a coastal OMZ (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica). 15N-stable-isotope enrichment experiments revealed that the carcasses of abundant copepods and ostracods provide anoxic microbial hotspots in the pelagic zone by hosting intense anaerobic N-cycle activities even in the presence of ambient O2. [...]"
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Peter Stief et al.
Enhanced CO2 uptake at a shallow Arctic Ocean seep field overwhelms the positive warming potential of emitted methane
"Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 106 tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane released from the seafloor may reach the atmosphere and potentially amplify global warming. On the other hand, biological uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) has the potential to offset the positive warming potential of emitted methane, a process that has not received detailed consideration for these settings. Continuous sea−air gas flux data collected over a shallow ebullitive methane seep field on the Svalbard margin reveal atmospheric CO2 uptake rates (−33,300 ± 7,900 μmol m−2⋅d−1) twice that of surrounding waters and ∼1,900 times greater than the diffusive sea−air methane efflux (17.3 ± 4.8 μmol m−2⋅d−1). [...]"
Source: Proceedings of the Nathional Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)
Authors: John W. Pohlman et al.
Oregon Shelf Hypoxia Modeling
"Bottom hypoxia on the shelf in the Northeast Pacific is caused by different processes than coastal hypoxia related to riverine inputs. Hypoxia off the coast of Oregon is a naturally occurring process as opposed to the anthropogenically forced hypoxia found in many coastal environments (e.g., Gulf of Mexico shelf, Chesapeake Bay). Off Oregon, bottom hypoxia occurs in summers that have large upwelling-driven near-bottom transport of high nitrate, low dissolved oxygen (DO) waters onto the shelf. The combination of low DO and high nitrate provides initially low (but not hypoxic) DO conditions near the bottom, and nitrate fertilization of shelf surface waters, leading to substantial phytoplankton production. [...]"
Source: Modeling Coastal Hypoxia (pp 215-238)
Authors: Andrey O. Koch, Yvette H. Spitz, Harold P. Batchelder
Denitrifying community in coastal sediments performs aerobic and anaerobic respiration simultaneously
"Nitrogen (N) input to the coastal oceans has increased considerably because of anthropogenic activities, however, concurrent increases have not occurred in open oceans. It has been suggested that benthic denitrification in sandy coastal sediments is a sink for this N. Sandy sediments are dynamic permeable environments, where electron acceptor and donor concentrations fluctuate over short temporal and spatial scales. The response of denitrifiers to these fluctuations are largely unknown, although previous observations suggest they may denitrify under aerobic conditions. We examined the response of benthic denitrification to fluctuating oxygen concentrations, finding that denitrification not only occurred at high O2 concentrations but was stimulated by frequent switches between oxic and anoxic conditions. [...]"
Source: The ISME Journal
Authors: Hannah K Marchant et al.
Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity
The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the World’s thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo records and future climate projections indicate strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from −50 % to +50 %) on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes.
Source: Biogeosciences (in Review)
Authors: Zouhair Lachkar, Marina Lévy, and Shafer Smith
A Review of Protist Grazing Below the Photic Zone Emphasizing Studies of Oxygen-Depleted Water Columns and Recent Applications of In situ Approaches
"Little is still known of the impacts of protist grazing on bacterioplankton communities in the dark ocean. Furthermore, the accuracy of assessments of in situ microbial activities, including protist grazing, can be affected by sampling artifacts introduced during sample retrieval and downstream manipulations. Potential artifacts may be increased when working with deep-sea samples or samples from chemically unique water columns such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). OMZs are oxygen-depleted regions in the ocean, where oxygen concentrations can drop to <20 μM. These regions are typically located near eastern boundary upwelling systems and currently occur in waters occupying below about 8% of total ocean surface area, representing ~1% of the ocean's volume. [...]"
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Luis E. Medina et al.
Upwelling and isolation in oxygen-depleted anticyclonic modewater eddies and implications for nitrate cycling
"The temporal evolution of the physical and biogeochemical structure of an oxygen-depleted anticyclonic modewater eddy is investigated over a 2-month period using high-resolution glider and ship data. A weakly stratified eddy core (squared buoyancy frequency N2 ∼ 0.1 × 10−4 s−2) at shallow depth is identified with a horizontal extent of about 70 km and bounded by maxima in N2. The upper N2 maximum (3–5 × 10−4 s−2) coincides with the mixed layer base and the lower N2 maximum (0.4 × 10−4 s−2) is found at about 200 m depth in the eddy centre. The eddy core shows a constant slope in temperature/salinity (T∕S) characteristic over the 2 months, but an erosion of the core progressively narrows down the T∕S range. The eddy minimal oxygen concentrations decreased by about 5 µmol kg−1in 2 months, confirming earlier estimates of oxygen consumption rates in these eddies. [...]"
Authors: Johannes Karstensen et al.
Influence of dissolved oxygen on the protectiveness and morphological characteristics of calcareous deposits with galvanostatic polarization
"The influence of dissolved oxygen on calcareous deposits formed under galvanostatic polarization mode was studied. When the dissolved oxygen concentration was less than 7 mg L−1, the cathodic protection potential showed a plateau at the initial polarization, and then quickly shifted negatively. While the dissolved oxygen was more than 9 mg L−1, the potential shifted negatively in a linear form. After 168 h of polarization, the final protection potential shifted negatively with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration. The deposition progress was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and only one single loop was found in Nyquist diagram, indicating deposits of ineffective protectiveness precipitation under the experimental conditions. [...]"
Source: Journal of Ocean University of China
Authors: Chengjie Li, Min Du, Rongjie Gao