News

Using machine learning to understand climate change

Abstract.

"Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that is being added to the atmosphere through both natural processes and human activities, such as energy production and agriculture.

To predict the impacts of human emissions, researchers need a complete picture of the atmosphere’s methane cycle. They need to know the size of the inputs—both natural and human—as well as the outputs. They also need to know how long methane resides in the atmosphere.

To help develop this understanding, Tom Weber, an assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences at the University of Rochester; undergraduate researcher Nicola Wiseman ’18, now a graduate student at the University of California, Irvine; and their colleague Annette Kock at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research in Germany, used data science to determine how much methane is emitted from the ocean into the atmosphere each year.  [...]"

Source: University of Rochester

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Researchers find global ocean methane emissions dominated by shallow coastal waters

"Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that is being added to the atmosphere through both natural processes and human activities, such as energy production and agriculture.

To predict the impacts of human emissions, researchers need a complete picture of the atmosphere's methane cycle. They need to know the size of the inputs—both natural and human—as well as the outputs. They also need to know how long methane resides in the atmosphere. [...]"

Source: Phys.org

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Global ocean methane emissions dominated by shallow coastal waters

Abstract.

"Oceanic emissions represent a highly uncertain term in the natural atmospheric methane (CH4) budget, due to the sparse sampling of dissolved CH4 in the marine environment. Here we overcome this limitation by training machine-learning models to map the surface distribution of methane disequilibrium (∆CH4). Our approach yields a global diffusive CH4 flux of 2–6TgCH4yr−1 from the ocean to the atmosphere, after propagating uncertainties in ∆CH4 and gas transfer velocity.  [...]"

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Thomas Weber, Nicola A. Wiseman & Annette Kock 
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-12541-7

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Deep Atlantic mysteries unveiled in the face of climate change

"ATLAS is one of these projects you can’t do justice to in a single-page article. For over 3.5 years now, a consortium of multinational industries, SMEs, governments and academia have been sailing across the Atlantic to assess its deep-sea ecosystems. In doing so, they’ve already managed to deeply enhance our understanding of the consequences of climate change as well as inform the development of better management policies and practices. [...]"

Source: Cordis

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The IPCC oceans report is a wake-up call for policymakers

"The importance of the ocean in climate regulation is enormous—yet undervalued. The ocean is estimated to have absorbed 93 percent of the excess heat generated by human activities since the 1970s, acting as a buffer against the global warming we've seen to date. The majority of the global carbon cycle circulates through the ocean, through marine food-webs and other processes, and carbon is locked-away in coastal and marine habitats and deep in ocean sediments. Coastal ecosystems alone sequester more carbon than terrestrial forest per unit area. [...]"

Source: Phys.org

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To solve climate change, remember the ocean

Abstract.

"More than two-thirds of the planet is covered by ocean, but these waters have not received their due in terms of research dollars or public attention. That means the dangers that the seas face from climate change — and the solutions that they offer — are often overlooked. [...]"

Source: Nature
Authors: Janis Searles Jones
DOI: 10.1038/d41586-019-02832-w

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Ocean phosphorus inventory: large uncertainties in future projections on millennial timescales and their consequences for ocean deoxygenation

Abstract.

"Previous studies have suggested that enhanced weathering and benthic phosphorus (P) fluxes, triggered by climate warming, can increase the oceanic P inventory on millennial timescales, promoting ocean productivity and deoxygenation. In this study, we assessed the major uncertainties in projected P inventories and their imprint on ocean deoxygenation using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity for the same business-as-usual carbon dioxide (CO2) emission scenario until the year 2300 and subsequent linear decline to zero emissions until the year 3000. [...]"

Source: Earth System Dynamics
Authors: Tronje P. Kemena et al.
DOI: 10.5194/esd-10-539-2019

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A Synthesis of Opportunities for Applying the Telecoupling Framework to Marine Protected Areas

Abstract.

"The world’s oceans face unprecedented anthropogenic threats in the globalized era that originate from all over the world, including climate change, global trade and transportation, and pollution. Marine protected areas (MPAs) serve important roles in conservation of marine biodiversity and ecosystem resilience, but their success is increasingly challenged in the face of such large-scale threats. [...]"

Source: Sustainability
Authors: Vanessa Hull et al.
DOI: 10.3390/su11164450

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Study tests resilience of the Salish Sea to climate change impacts

"What will the ecology of the Salish Sea look like in the year 2095?

It's an important question for millions of people who live along and near the shores of this intricate, interconnected network of coastal waterways, inlets, bays, and estuaries that encompasses Puget Sound in Washington state and the deep waters of southwest British Columbia. A research team from PNNL found that the inner Salish Sea is resilient, and that future response to climate change—while significant—will be less severe than the open ocean. [...]"

Source: phys.org

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High-resolution underwater laser spectrometer sensing provides new insights into methane distribution at an Arctic seepage site

Abstract.

"Methane (CH4) in marine sediments has the potential to contribute to changes in the ocean and climate system. Physical and biochemical processes that are difficult to quantify with current standard methods such as acoustic surveys and discrete sampling govern the distribution of dissolved CH4 in oceans and lakes. [...]"

Source: Ocean Science
Authors: Pär Jansson et al. 
DOI: 10.5194/os-15-1055-2019

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