Regulation of nitrous oxide production in low-oxygen waters off the coast of Peru
"Oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) are major sites of net natural nitrous oxide (N2O) production and emissions. In order to understand changes in the magnitude of N2O production in response to global change, knowledge on the individual contributions of the major microbial pathways (nitrification and denitrification) to N2O production and their regulation is needed. In the ODZ in the coastal area off Peru, the sensitivity of N2O production to oxygen and organic matter was investigated using 15N tracer experiments in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and microarray analysis of total and active functional genes targeting archaeal amoA and nirS as marker genes for nitrification and denitrification, respectively. [...]"
Authors: Claudia Frey et al.
Response of N2O production rate to ocean acidification in the western North Pacific
"Ocean acidification, induced by the increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions, has a profound impact on marine organisms and biogeochemical processes1. The response of marine microbial activities to ocean acidification might play a crucial role in the future evolution of air–sea fluxes of biogenic gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O), a strong GHG and the dominant stratospheric ozone-depleting substance2. Here, we examine the response of N2O production from nitrification to acidification in a series of incubation experiments conducted in subtropical and subarctic western North Pacific. [...]"
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Florian Breider et al.
Interactions of anaerobic ammonium oxidizers and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in a substrate-limited model system mimicking the marine environment
"In nature anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrification processes convert fixed nitrogen to gaseous nitrogen compounds, which are then released to the atmosphere. While anammox bacteria produce N2 from ammonium and nitrite, in the denitrification process nitrate and nitrite are converted to N2 and the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). [...]"
Source: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Authors: Lina Russ et al.
Nitrous oxide in the northern Gulf of Aqaba and the central Red Sea
"Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. It is produced as an intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. The open and coastal oceans are major sources of atmospheric N2O. However, its oceanic distribution is still largely unknown. Here we present the first measurements of the water column distribution of N2O in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. [...]"
Source: Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
Authors: Hermann W.Bange et al.
Gas exchange estimates in the Peruvian upwelling regime biased by multi-day near-surface stratification
"The coastal upwelling regime off Peru in December 2012 showed considerable vertical concentration gradients of dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) across the top few meters of the ocean. The gradients were predominantly downward, i.e., concentrations decreased toward the surface. Ignoring these gradients causes a systematic error in regionally integrated gas exchange estimates, when using observed concentrations at several meters below the surface as input for bulk flux parameterizations – as is routinely practiced. [...]"
Authors: Tim Fischer et al.
Investigating the effect of El Niño on nitrous oxide distribution in the eastern tropical South Pacific
"The open ocean is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O), an atmospheric trace gas attributable to global warming and ozone depletion. Intense sea-to-air N2O fluxes occur in major oceanic upwelling regions such as the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP). The ETSP is influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation that leads to inter-annual variations in physical, chemical, and biological properties in the water column. In October 2015, a strong El Niño event was developing in the ETSP; we conduct field observations to investigate (1) the N2Oproduction pathways and associated biogeochemical properties and (2) the effects of El Niño on water column N2O distributions and fluxes using data from previous non-El Niño years. [...]"
Authors: Qixing Ji et al.
N2O Emissions From the Northern Benguela Upwelling System
"The Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) is the most productive of all eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems and it hosts a well‐developed oxygen minimum zone. As such, the BUS is a potential hotspot for production of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas derived from microbially driven decay of sinking organic matter. Yet, the extent at which near‐surface waters emit N2O to the atmosphere in the BUS is highly uncertain. [...]"
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: D. L. Arévalo‐Martínez et al.