High-resolution underwater laser spectrometer sensing provides new insights into methane distribution at an Arctic seepage site
"Methane (CH4) in marine sediments has the potential to contribute to changes in the ocean and climate system. Physical and biochemical processes that are difficult to quantify with current standard methods such as acoustic surveys and discrete sampling govern the distribution of dissolved CH4 in oceans and lakes. [...]"
Source: Ocean Science
Authors: Pär Jansson et al.
Bacterial fermentation and respiration processes are uncoupled in anoxic permeable sediments
"Permeable (sandy) sediments cover half of the continental margin and are major regulators of oceanic carbon cycling. The microbial communities within these highly dynamic sediments frequently shift between oxic and anoxic states, and hence are less stratified than those in cohesive (muddy) sediments. A major question is, therefore, how these communities maintain metabolism during oxic–anoxic transitions. [...]"
Source: Nature Microbiology
Authors: Adam J. Kessler et al.
Unexpectedly high diversity of anammox bacteria detected in deep-sea surface sediments of the South China Sea
"Ca. Scalindua is an exclusive genus of anammox bacteria known to exhibit low diversity found in deep-sea ecosystems. In this study, the community composition of anammox bacteria in surface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS) was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing techniques. Results indicated that the dominant OTUs were related to three different genera of anammox bacteria, identified as Ca. Scalindua (87.29%), Ca. Brocadia (10.27%) and Ca. Kuenenia (2.44%), in order of decreasing abundance. [...]"
Source: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Authors: Jiapeng Wu et al.
Widespread seawater circulation in 18–22 Ma oceanic crust: Impact on heat flow and sediment geochemistry
"On the basis of heat-flow measurements, seismic mapping, and sediment pore-water analysis, we demonstrate widespread and efficient ventilation of the 18–22 Ma oceanic crust of the northeast equatorial Pacific Ocean. Recharge and discharge appear to be associated with basement outcrops, including seamounts and north-south–trending faults, along which sediment cover thins out and volcanic rocks are exposed. Low-temperature hydrothermal circulation through the volcanic crust leads to the reduction of heat flow through overlying sediments, with measured heat-flow values that are well below those expected from conductive cooling curves for lithosphere of this age. [...]"
Authors: Thomas Kuhn et al.
Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry
"The intensity, duration and frequency of coastal hypoxia (oxygen concentration <63 μM) are increasing due to human alteration of coastal ecosystems and changes in oceanographic conditions due to global warming. Here we provide a concise review of the consequences of coastal hypoxia for sediment biogeochemistry. Changes in bottom-water oxygen levels have consequences for early diagenetic pathways (more anaerobic at expense of aerobic pathways), the efficiency of re-oxidation of reduced metabolites and the nature, direction and magnitude of sediment-water exchange fluxes. Hypoxia may also lead to more organic matter accumulation and burial and the organic matter eventually buried is also of higher quality, i.e. less degraded. [...]"
Source: Biogeosciences (2009)
Authors: J. J. Middelburg and L. A. Levin