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Diversity and relative abundance of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms in the offshore Namibian hypoxic zone

Abstract.

"Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2) and NO2 to nitrate (NO3), plays a vital role in ocean nitrogen cycling. Characterizing the distribution of nitrifying organisms over environmental gradients can help predict how nitrogen availability may change with shifting ocean conditions, for example, due to loss of dissolved oxygen (O2). [...]"

Source: PLoS ONE
Authors: Evan Lau et al.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217136

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As oceans warm, microbes could pump more CO2 back into air, study warns

"The world's oceans soak up about a quarter of the carbon dioxide that humans pump into the air each year -- a powerful brake on the greenhouse effect. In addition to purely physical and chemical processes, a large part of this is taken up by photosynthetic plankton as they incorporate carbon into their bodies. When plankton die, they sink, taking the carbon with them. Some part of this organic rain will end up locked into the deep ocean, insulated from the atmosphere for centuries or more. [...]"

Source: EurekAlert!

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Complete arsenic-based respiratory cycle in the marine microbial communities of pelagic oxygen-deficient zones

Abstract.

"Marine oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) are naturally occurring midlayer oxygen-poor regions of the ocean, sandwiched between oxygenated surface and deep layers. In the absence of oxygen, microorganisms in ODZs use other compounds, such as oxidized forms of nitrogen and sulfur, as terminal electron acceptors. [...]"

Source: PNAS
Authors: Jaclyn K. Saunders et al.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818349116

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Extent of the annual Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone influences microbial community structure

Abstract.

"Rich geochemical datasets generated over the past 30 years have provided fine-scale resolution on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastal hypoxic (≤ 2 mg of O2 L-1) zone. In contrast, little is known about microbial community structure and activity in the hypoxic zone despite the implication that microbial respiration is responsible for forming low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. [...]"

Source: PLoS ONE
Authors: Lauren Gillies Campbell et al.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209055

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Microbial ecosystem dynamics drive fluctuating nitrogen loss in marine anoxic zones

Abstract.

"The dynamics of nitrogen (N) loss in the ocean’s oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) are thought to be driven by climate impacts on ocean circulation and biological productivity. Here we analyze a data-constrained model of the microbial ecosystem in an ODZ and find that species interactions drive fluctuations in local- and regional-scale rates of N loss, even in the absence of climate variability. [...]"

Source: PNAS
Authors: Justin L. Penn et al.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818014116

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The microbiomes of deep-sea hydrothermal vents: distributed globally, shaped locally

Abstract.

"The discovery of chemosynthetic ecosystems at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 changed our view of biology. Chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea form the foundation of vent ecosystems by exploiting the chemical disequilibrium between reducing hydrothermal fluids and oxidizing seawater, harnessing this energy to fix inorganic carbon into biomass. [...]"

Source: Nature Reviews Microbiology
Author: Gregory J. Dick
DOI: 10.1038/s41579-019-0160-2

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Unexpectedly high diversity of anammox bacteria detected in deep-sea surface sediments of the South China Sea

Abstract.

"Ca. Scalindua is an exclusive genus of anammox bacteria known to exhibit low diversity found in deep-sea ecosystems. In this study, the community composition of anammox bacteria in surface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS) was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing techniques. Results indicated that the dominant OTUs were related to three different genera of anammox bacteria, identified as Ca. Scalindua (87.29%), Ca. Brocadia (10.27%) and Ca. Kuenenia (2.44%), in order of decreasing abundance. [...]"

Source: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Authors: Jiapeng Wu et al.
DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiz013

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Short exposure to oxygen and sulfide alter nitrification, denitrification, and DNRA activity in seasonally hypoxic estuarine sediments

Abstract.

"Increased organic loading to sediments from eutrophication often results in hypoxia, reduced nitrification and increased production of hydrogen sulfide, altering the balance between nitrogen removal and retention. We examined the effect of short-term exposure to various oxygen and sulfide concentrations on sediment nitrification, denitrification and DNRA from a chronically hypoxic basin in Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. Surprisingly, nitrification rates were highest in the hypoxic and anoxic treatments (about 5 μmol cm−3 d−1) and the high sulfide treatment was not significantly different than the oxic treatment.  [...]"

Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Authors: Jane M. Caffrey, Stefano Bonaglia, Daniel J. Conley
DOI: 10.1093/femsle/fny288

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The emergence of a globally productive biosphere

Abstract.

"A productive biosphere and oxygenated atmosphere are defining features of Earth and are fundamentally linked. Here I argue that cellular metabolism imposes central constraints on the historical trajectories of biopsheric productivity and atmospheric oxygenation. Photosynthesis depends on iron, but iron is highly insoluble under the aerobic conditions produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. [...]"

Source: PeerJ Preprints
Author: Rogier Braakman
DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27269v1

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Microbial niches in marine oxygen minimum zones

Abstract.

"In the ocean’s major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), oxygen is effectively absent from sea water and life is dominated by microorganisms that use chemicals other than oxygen for respiration. Recent studies that combine advanced genomic and chemical detection methods are delineating the different metabolic niches that microorganisms can occupy in OMZs. Understanding these niches, the microorganisms that inhabit them, and their influence on marine biogeochemical cycles is crucial as OMZs expand with increasing seawater temperatures."

Source: Nature Reviews Microbiology
Authors: Anthony D. Bertagnolli & Frank J. Stewart
DOI: 10.1038/s41579-018-0087-z

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