Dark carbon fixation in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone contributes to sedimentary organic carbon (SOM)
"In response to rising CO2 concentrations and increasing global sea surface temperatures, oxygen minimum zones (OMZ), or “dead zones”, are expected to expand. OMZs are fueled by high primary productivity, resulting in enhanced biological oxygen demand at depth, subsequent oxygen depletion, and attenuation of remineralization. This results in the deposition of organic carbon‐rich sediments. Carbon drawdown is estimated by biogeochemical models; however, a major process is ignored: carbon fixation in the mid‐ and lower water column. [...]"
Source: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Authors: Sabine K. Lengger et al.
High-throughput screening of sediment bacterial communities from Oxygen Minimum Zones of the northern Indian Ocean
"The Northern Indian Ocean host two recognized Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ): one in the Arabian Sea and the other in the Bay of Bengal region. The next-generation sequencing technique was used to understand the total bacterial diversity from the surface sediment of off Goa within the OMZ of Arabian Sea, and from off Paradip within the OMZ of Bay of Bengal. [...]"
Source: Biogeosciences (preprint)
Authors: Jovitha Lincy and Cathrine Manohar
Microbial diversity of the Arabian Sea in the Oxygen minimum zones by metagenomics approach
"Large oxygen depleted areas known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) have been observed in the Arabian Sea and recent reports indicate that these areas are expanding at an alarming rate. In marine waters, oxygen depletion may also be related to global warming and the temperature rise, acidification and deoxygenation can lead to major consequences wherein the plants, fish and other biota will struggle to survive in the ecosystem. [...]"
Authors: Mandar S Paingankar et al.
Strong intensification of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to Arabian Gulf warming
"The highly saline, oxygen saturated waters of the Arabian Gulf (hereafter the Gulf) sink to intermediate depths (200‐300m) when they enter the Arabian Sea, ventilating the World's thickest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Here, we investigate the impacts of a warming of the Gulf consistent with climate change projections on the intensity of this OMZ. Using a series of eddy‐resolving model simulations, we show that the warming of the Gulf waters increases their buoyancy and hence limits their contribution to the ventilation of intermediate depths. [...]"
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Z. Lachkar, M. Lévy and S. Smith
Assessment of the impact of spatial resolution on ROMS simulated upper-ocean biogeochemistry of the Arabian Sea from an operational perspective
"The resolution of the model emerges to be an important factor in simulating the real oceanic features. In this paper, the performance of two coupled bio-physical models, having spatial resolutions 1/12° (∼9 km) and 1/4° (∼25 km) configured using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), have been evaluated in simulating upper ocean dynamics of the Arabian Sea. [...]"
Source: Journal of Operational Oceanography
Authors: Kunal Chakraborty et al.
Autonomous profiling float observations reveal the dynamics of deep biomass distributions in the denitrifying oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea
"Data from 13 autonomous profiling BGC-Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical and bio-optical sensors deployed between 2011 and 2016, were used to explore the potential of bio-optical methods to map deep biomass distribution in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Dissolved oxygen sensors revealed concentrations below 5 μmol kg−1 for much of the depth range between 200 and 400 m and below 1 μmol kg−1 in the centre of the OMZ, which is well below climatological values. [...]"
Source: Journal of Marine Systems
Authors: Bożena Wojtasiewicz et al.
Oxygen variability controls denitrification in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone
"Nitrate limits productivity in much of the ocean. Nitrate residence time is a few thousand years and changes in nitrate loss could influence ocean productivity. A major sinks for nitrate is denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation in the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The Bay of Bengal OMZ is anomalous because large amounts of nitrate loss do not occur there, while nitrate is removed in the nearby OMZ of the Arabian Sea. Observations of nitrate and oxygen made over 5 years by 20 profiling floats equipped with chemical sensors in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are used to understand why nitrate is removed rapidly in the Arabian Sea, but not in the Bay of Bengal. [...]"
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Kenneth S. Johnson, Stephen C. Riser and M. Ravichandran
Expanding 'dead zone' in Arabian Sea raises climate change fears
In the waters of the Arabian Sea, a vast "dead zone" the size of Scotland is expanding and scientists say climate change may be to blame. In his lab in Abu Dhabi, Zouhair Lachkar is labouring over a colourful computer model of the Gulf of Oman, showing changing temperatures, sea levels and oxygen concentrations.His models and new research unveiled earlier this year show a worrying trend.Dead zones are areas of the sea where the lack of oxygen makes it difficult for fish to survive and the one in the Arabian Sea is "is the most intense in the world," says Lachkar, a senior scientist at NYU Abu Dhabi in the capital of the United Arab Emirates.
Ventilation of oxygen to oxygen minimum zone due to anticyclonic eddies in the Bay of Bengal
"Intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) occurs in the mid‐depth of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP), Arabian Sea (AS), and Bay of Bengal (BoB). However, the occurrence of anammox/denitrification was reported only in the ETP and AS and its absence in the BoB is attributed to presence of traces of dissolved oxygen (DO). Anticyclonic Eddies (ACE) supply high nutrient, organic‐rich and oxygen poor waters from the coastal upwelling regions leading to strengthening of OMZ in the offshore of AS and ETP. [...]"
Authors: V. V. S. S. Sarma, T. V. S. Udaya Bhaskar
Enhanced carbon-sulfur cycling in the sediments of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone center
"Biogeochemistry of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) sediments, which are characterized by high input of labile organic matter, have crucial bearings on the benthic biota, gas and metal fluxes across the sediment-water interface, and carbon-sulfur cycling. Here we couple pore-fluid chemistry and comprehensive microbial diversity data to reveal the sedimentary carbon-sulfur cycle across a water-depth transect covering the entire thickness of eastern Arabian Sea OMZ, off the west coast of India. [...]"
Source: Scientific Reports
Authors: Svetlana Fernandes et al.