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The Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Ecosystems and Reliant Human Communities

Abstract.

"Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation, along with agriculture and land-use practices are causing wholesale increases in seawater CO2 and inorganic carbon levels; reductions in pH; and alterations in acid-base chemistry of estuarine, coastal, and surface open-ocean waters. On the basis of laboratory experiments and field studies of naturally elevated CO2 marine environments, widespread biological impacts of human-driven ocean acidification have been posited, ranging from changes in organism physiology and population dynamics to altered communities and ecosystems. Acidification, in conjunction with other climate change–related environmental stresses, particularly under future climate change[...]"

 

Source: Annual Review of Environment and Resources
Authors: Scott C. Doney et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-012320-083019

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Ocean acidification reduces growth and grazing impact of Antarctic heterotrophic nanoflagellates

Abstract.

"High-latitude oceans have been identified as particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification if anthropogenic CO2 emissions continue. Marine microbes are an essential part of the marine food web and are a critical link in biogeochemical processes in the ocean, such as the cycling of nutrients and carbon. Despite this, the response of Antarctic marine microbial communities to ocean acidification is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of increasing fCO2 on the growth of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs), nano- and picophytoplankton, and prokaryotes (heterotrophic Bacteria and Archaea) in a natural coastal Antarctic marine microbial community from Prydz Bay, East Antarctica.[...]"

 

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Stacy Deppeler et al.
DOI: 10.5194/bg-17-4153-2020

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Emergent constraint on Arctic Ocean acidification in the twenty-first century

Abstract.

"The ongoing uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean leads to ocean acidification, a process that results in a reduction in pH and in the saturation state of biogenic calcium carbonate minerals aragonite (Ωarag) and calcite (Ωcalc). Because of its naturally low Ωarag and Ωcalc (refs.), the Arctic Ocean is considered the region most susceptible to future acidification and associated ecosystem impacts. [...]"

Source: Nature
Authors: Jens Terhaar et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2360-3

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Is there warming in the pipeline? A multi-model analysis of the Zero Emissions Commitment from CO2

Abstract.

"The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global mean temperature expected to occur following the cessation of net CO2 emissions and as such is a critical parameter for calculating the remaining carbon budget. The Zero Emissions Commitment Model Intercomparison Project (ZECMIP) was established to gain a better understanding of the potential magnitude and sign of ZEC, in addition to the processes that underlie this metric. [...]"

Source: Biogeosciences
Authors: Andrew H. MacDougall et al.
DOI: 10.5194/bg-17-2987-2020

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Seeding oceans with iron may not impact climate change

"Study finds Earth's oceans contain just the right amount of iron; adding more may not improve their ability to absorb carbon dioxide

Historically, the oceans have done much of the planet's heavy lifting when it comes to sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Microscopic organisms known collectively as phytoplankton, which grow throughout the sunlit surface oceans and absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, are a key player.

To help stem escalating carbon dioxide emissions produced by the burning of fossil fuels, some scientists have proposed seeding the oceans with iron -- an essential ingredient that can stimulate phytoplankton growth. Such "iron fertilization" would cultivate vast new fields of phytoplankton, particularly in areas normally bereft of marine life. [...]"

Source: Sciencedaily

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No detectable Weddell Sea Antarctic Bottom Water export during the Last and Penultimate Glacial Maximum

Abstract.

"Weddell Sea-derived Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is one of the most important deep water masses in the Southern Hemisphere occupying large portions of the deep Southern Ocean (SO) today. While substantial changes in SO-overturning circulation were previously suggested, the state of Weddell Sea AABW export during glacial climates remains poorly understood. [...]"

Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Huang Huang et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-14302-3

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Importance of wind and meltwater for observed chemical and physical changes in the Southern Ocean

Abstract.

"The Southern Ocean south of 30° S represents only one-third of the total ocean area, yet absorbs half of the total ocean anthropogenic carbon and over two-thirds of ocean anthropogenic heat. In the past, the Southern Ocean has also been one of the most sparsely measured regions of the global ocean. [...]"

Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Ben Bronselaer et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0502-8

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Unravelling the sources of carbon emissions at the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a

Abstract.

"The early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a represents a major perturbation of the Earth's climate system and in particular the carbon cycle, as evidenced by widespread preservation of organic matter in marine settings and a characteristic negative carbon isotopic excursion (CIE) at its onset, followed by a broad positive CIE. The contemporaneous emplacement of a large igneous province (LIP) is invoked as a trigger for OAE 1a (and OAEs in general), but this link and the ultimate source of the carbon perturbation at the onset of OAEs is still debated. [...]"

Source: 
Authors: Markus Adloff et al.
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115947

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Meeting climate targets by direct CO2 injections: what price would the ocean have to pay?

Abstract.

"We investigate the climate mitigation potential and collateral effects of direct injections of captured CO2 into the deep ocean as a possible means to close the gap between an intermediate CO2 emissions scenario and a specific temperature target, such as the 1.5 C target aimed for by the Paris Agreement. For that purpose, a suite of approaches for controlling the amount of direct CO2 injections at 3000 m water depth are implemented in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. [...]"

Source: Earth System Dynamics
Authors: Fabian Reith et al.
DOI: 10.5194/esd-10-711-2019

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Marine nitrogen fixers mediate a low latitude pathway for atmospheric CO2 drawdown

Abstract.

"Roughly a third (~30 ppm) of the carbon dioxide (CO2) that entered the ocean during ice ages is attributed to biological mechanisms. A leading hypothesis for the biological drawdown of CO2 is iron (Fe) fertilisation of the high latitudes, but modelling efforts attribute at most 10 ppm to this mechanism, leaving ~20 ppm unexplained [...]"

Source: Nature Communications 
Authors: Pearse J. Buchanan et al.
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-12549-z

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