Opposite response of strong and moderate positive Indian Ocean Dipole to global warming
"A strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) induces weather extremes such as the 2019 Australian bushfires and African floods. The impact is influenced by sea surface temperature (SST), yet models disagree on how pIOD SST may respond to greenhouse warming. Here we find increased SST variability of strong pIOD events, with strong equatorial eastern Indian Ocean cool anomalies, but decreased variability of moderate pIOD events, dominated by western warm anomalies[...]"
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Wenju Cai et al.
Regional patterns and temporal evolution of ocean iron fertilization and CO2 drawdown during the last glacial termination
"The last time Earth's climate experienced geologically rapid global warming was associated with the last glacial termination, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose from 180 ppmv during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26-19 kaBP) to ∼260 ppmv by the early Holocene (12-8 kaBP). About one quarter of that difference is thought to be due to a stronger biological pump during glacial times, driven by increased aeolian dust deposition and hence greater iron availability in[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Fabrice Lambert et al.
Impacts of hypoxic events surpass those of future ocean warming and acidification
"Over the past decades, three major challenges to marine life have emerged as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions: ocean warming, acidification and oxygen loss. While most experimental research has targeted the first two stressors, the last remains comparatively neglected. Here, we implemented sequential hierarchical mixed-model meta-analyses (721 control–treatment comparisons) to compare the impacts of oxygen conditions associated with the current and continuously intensifying hypoxic[...]"
Source: Nature Ecology and Evolution
Authors: Eduardo Sampaio et al.
Increased carbon capture by a silicate-treated forested watershed affected by acid deposition
"Meeting internationally agreed-upon climate targets requires carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategies coupled with an urgent phase-down of fossil fuel emissions. However, the efficacy and wider impacts of CDR are poorly understood. Enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a land-based CDR strategy requiring large-scale field trials. Here we show that a low 3.44 t ha−1 wollastonite treatment in an 11.8 ha acid-rain-impacted forested watershed in New Hampshire, USA, led to cumulative carbon capture by carbonic acid weathering of 0.025–0.13 t CO2 ha−1 over 15 years. Despite a 0.8–2.4 t CO2 ha−1 logistical carbon penalty from mining, grinding, transportation[...]"
Authors: Lyla L. Taylor et al.
Sensitivity of 21st-century projected ocean new production changes to idealized biogeochemical model structure
"While there is agreement that global warming over the 21st century is likely to influence the biological pump, Earth system models (ESM) display significant divergence in their projections of future new production. This paper quantifies and interprets the sensitivity of projected changes in new production in an idealized global ocean-biogeochemistry model. The model includes two tracers that explicitly represent nutrient transport, light- and nutrient-limited nutrient uptake by the ecosystem (new production), and export via sinking organic particles. Globally, new production declines with warming due to reduced surface nutrient availability, as expected. However, the magnitude[...]"
Authors: Genevieve Jay Brett et al.
Enhanced Organic Carbon Burial in Sediments of Oxygen Minimum Zones Upon Ocean Deoxygenation
"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are expanding. This expansion is attributed to global warming and may continue over the next 10 to 100 kyrs due to multiple climate CO2-driven factors. The expansion of oxygen-deficient waters has the potential to enhance organic carbon burial in marine sediments, thereby providing a negative feedback on global warming. Here, we study the response of dissolved oxygen in the ocean to increased phosphorus and iron inputs due to CO2-driven enhanced weathering and increased dust emissions, respectively. We use an ocean biogeochemical model[...]"
Source: frontiers in the Marine Science
Authors: Itzel Ruvalcaba Baroni et al.
Latitudinal gradient in the respiration quotient and the implications for ocean oxygen availability
"Climate-driven depletion of ocean oxygen strongly impacts the global cycles of carbon and nutrients as well as the survival of many animal species. One of the main uncertainties in predicting changes to marine oxygen levels is the regulation of the biological respiration demand associated with the biological pump. Derived from the Redfield ratio, the molar ratio of oxygen to organic carbon consumed during respiration (i.e., the respiration quotient, r −O2:C r−O2:C ) is consistently assumed constant but rarely, if ever, measured. Using a prognostic[...]"
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Authors: Allison R. Moreno et al.
The Northeast Atlantic is running out of excess carbonate in the horizon of cold-water corals communities
"The oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by human activities alters the seawater carbonate system. Here, the chemical status of the Northeast Atlantic is examined by means of a high-quality database of carbon variables based on the GO-SHIP A25 section (1997–2018). The increase of atmospheric CO2 leads to an increase in ocean anthropogenic carbon (Cant) and a decrease in carbonate that is unequivocal in the upper and mid-layers (0–2,500 m depth). In the mid-layer, the carbonate content in the Northeast Atlantic is maintained by the interplay between the northward spreading of recently conveyed Mediterranean Water with excess of carbonate and the arrival of subpolar-origin waters close to carbonate[...]".
Source: Nature Reviews Earth & Environment
Authors: Marcos Fontela et al.
Contrasting Upper and Deep Ocean Oxygen Response to Protracted Global Warming
"It is well established that the ocean is currently losing dissolved oxygen (O2) in response to ocean warming, but the long‐term, equilibrium response of O2 to a warmer climate is neither well quantified nor understood. Here we use idealized multimillennial global warming simulations with a comprehensive Earth system model to show that the equilibrium response in ocean O2 differs fundamentally from the ongoing transient response. After physical equilibration of the model (>4,000 years) under a two times preindustrial CO2 scenario, the deep ocean[...]"
Source: Advancing Earth and Space Science
Authors: T. L. Frölicher et al.
Substrate regulation leads to differential responses of microbial ammonia-oxidizing communities to ocean warming
"In the context of continuously increasing anthropogenic nitrogen inputs, knowledge of how ammonia oxidation (AO) in the ocean responds to warming is crucial to predicting future changes in marine nitrogen biogeochemistry. Here, we show divergent thermal response patterns for marine AO across a wide onshore/offshore trophic gradient. [...]"
Source: Nature Communications
Authors: Zhen-Zhen Zheng et al.