Factors controlling plankton community production, export flux, and particulate matter stoichiometry in the coastal upwelling system off Peru
"Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) are among the most productive marine ecosystems on Earth. The production of organic material is fueled by upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters and high incident light at the sea surface. However, biotic and abiotic factors can modify surface production and related biogeochemical processes. Determining these factors is important because EBUS are considered hotspots of climate change, and reliable predictions of their future functioning requires understanding of the mechanisms driving the biogeochemical cycles therein. In this field experiment, we used in situ mesocosms as tools to improve our mechanistic understanding of processes controlling organic matter cycling in the coastal Peruvian upwelling system.[...]"
Authors: Lennart Thomas Bach et al
Biogeochemistry and hydrography shape microbial community assembly and activity in the eastern topical North Pacific Ocean oxygen minimum zone
"Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycles due to extensive microbial activity. How OMZ microbial communities assemble and respond to environmental variation is therefore essential to understanding OMZ functioning and ocean biogeochemistry. Sampling along depth profiles at five stations in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP), we captured systematic variations in dissolved oxygen (DO) and associated variables (nitrite, chlorophyll, and ammonium) with depth and between stations. We quantitatively analysed relationships between oceanographic gradients and microbial community assembly and activity based on paired 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA sequencing. Overall microbial community[...] "
Source: Society for Applied Microbiology
Authors: J. Michael Berman et al.
Metabolic trait diversity shapes marine biogeography
"Climate and physiology shape biogeography, yet the range limits of species can rarely be ascribed to the quantitative traits of organisms1,2,3. Here we evaluate whether the geographical range boundaries of species coincide with ecophysiological limits to acquisition of aerobic energy4 for a global cross-section of the biodiversity of marine animals. We observe a tight correlation between the metabolic rate and the efficacy of oxygen supply, and between the temperature sensitivities[...]"
Authors: Curtis Deutsch et al.
Phosphorus-limited conditions in the early Neoproterozoic ocean maintained low levels of atmospheric oxygen
"The redox chemistry of anoxic continental margin settings evolved from widespread sulfide-containing (euxinic) conditions to a global ferruginous (iron-containing) state in the early Neoproterozoic era (from ~1 to 0.8 billion years ago). Ocean redox chemistry exerts a strong control on the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus, a limiting nutrient, and hence on primary production, but the response of the phosphorus cycle to this major ocean redox transition has not been investigated. Here, we use a geochemical[...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Romain Guilbaud et al.
Latitudinal gradient in the respiration quotient and the implications for ocean oxygen availability
"Climate-driven depletion of ocean oxygen strongly impacts the global cycles of carbon and nutrients as well as the survival of many animal species. One of the main uncertainties in predicting changes to marine oxygen levels is the regulation of the biological respiration demand associated with the biological pump. Derived from the Redfield ratio, the molar ratio of oxygen to organic carbon consumed during respiration (i.e., the respiration quotient, r −O2:C r−O2:C ) is consistently assumed constant but rarely, if ever, measured. Using a prognostic[...]"
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Authors: Allison R. Moreno et al.
Imprint of Trace Dissolved Oxygen on Prokaryoplankton Community Structure in an Oxygen Minimum Zone
"The Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) is a large, persistent, and intensifying oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that accounts for almost half of the total area of global OMZs. Within the OMZ core (∼350–700 m depth), dissolved oxygen is typically near or below the analytical detection limit of modern sensors (∼10 nM). Steep oxygen gradients above and below the OMZ core lead to vertical structuring of microbial communities that also vary between particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) size fractions [...]"
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science
Authors: Luis Medina Faull et al.
Abundant nitrite-oxidizing metalloenzymes in the mesopelagic zone of the tropical Pacific Ocean
"Numerous biogeochemical reactions occur within the oceans’ major oxygen minimum zones, but less attention has been paid to the open ocean extremities of these zones. Here we report measurements on oxygen minimum zone waters from the Eastern to the Central Tropical North Pacific, which we analysed using metaproteomic techniques to discern the microbial functions present and their influence on biogeochemical cycling. [...]"
Source: Nature Geoscience
Authors: Mak A. Saito et al.
A revisit to the regulation of oxygen minimum zone in the Bay of Bengal
"Occurrence of intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is known in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), but it has been recently reported to have become more acute and is at its tipping point. Here, we show that the intensification of OMZ to acute condition is a random and short-term rather than perennial phenomenon based on re-evaluation of old and recent information in the BoB. Short-term modifications in dissolved oxygen (DO) in the OMZ are caused by balance among physical forcings: salinity stratification, occurrence of cyclonic (CE), and anticyclonic eddies (ACE). [...]"
Source: Journal of Earth System Science
Authors: B Sridevi and V V S S Sarma
Anoxic metabolism after the 21st century in oxygen minimum zones
"Global models project a decrease of marine oxygen over the course of the 21th century. The future of marine oxygen becomes increasingly uncertain further into the future after yr 2100 , partly because ocean models differ in the way organic matter remineralisation continues under oxygen- and nitrate-free conditions. Using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity we found that under a business-as-usual CO2-emission scenario ocean deoxygenation further intensifies for several centuries until eventually ocean circulation re-establishes and marine oxygen increases again. (Oschlies et al. 2019, DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-10813-w). [...]"
Source: EGU General Assembly 2020
Authors: Wolfgang Koeve and Angela Landolfi
Intermediate water masses, a major supplier of oxygen for the eastern tropical Pacific ocean
"It is well known that Intermediate Water Masses (IWM) are sinking in high latitudes and ventilate the lower thermocline (500–1500 m depth). We here highlight how the IWM oxygen content and the IWM pathway along the Equatorial Intermediate Current System (EICS) towards the eastern tropical Pacific ocean are essential for the supply of oxygen to the lower thermocline and the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs). [...]"
Source: Ocean Science
Authors: Olaf Duteil et al.