Diapycnal dissolved organic matter supply into the upper Peruvian oxycline
"The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) hosts the Peruvian upwelling system, which represents one of the most productive areas in the world ocean. High primary production followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world ocean, where dissolved oxygen (O2) concentrations reach less than 1 µmol kg−1. [...]"
Authors: Alexandra N. Loginova et al.
Remote and local drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability in the shallow oxygen minimum zone off Mauritania in June 2014
"Upwelling systems play a key role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles and are also of local relevance due to their high productivity and fish resources. To capture and understand the high spatial and temporal variability in physical and biogeochemical parameters found in these regions, novel measurement techniques have to be combined in an interdisciplinary manner. Here we use high-resolution glider-based physical–biogeochemical observations in combination with ship-based underwater vision profiler, sensor and bottle data to investigate the drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability across the shelf break off Mauritania in June 2014. [...]"
Authors: Soeren Thomsen et al.
N2O Emissions From the Northern Benguela Upwelling System
"The Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) is the most productive of all eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems and it hosts a well‐developed oxygen minimum zone. As such, the BUS is a potential hotspot for production of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas derived from microbially driven decay of sinking organic matter. Yet, the extent at which near‐surface waters emit N2O to the atmosphere in the BUS is highly uncertain. [...]"
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: D. L. Arévalo‐Martínez et al.
Seasonal Variability of the Mauritania Current and Hydrography at 18°N
"Extensive field campaigns in the Mauritanian upwelling region between 2005 and 2016 provide the database for analyzing the seasonal variability of the eastern boundary circulation (EBC) and associated water mass distribution at 18°N. The data set includes shipboard upper ocean current, hydrographic, and oxygen measurements from nine research cruises conducted during upwelling (December to April) and relaxation (May to July) seasons. [...]"
Source: JGR Oceans
Authors: T. Klenz, M. Dengler and P. Brandt
Deglacial to Holocene Ocean Temperatures in the Humboldt Current System as Indicated by Alkenone Paleothermometry
"The response of the Humboldt Current System to future global warming is uncertain. Here we reconstruct alkenone‐derived near‐surface temperatures from multiple cores along the Peruvian coast to infer the driving mechanisms of upwelling changes for the last 20 kyr. Our records show a deglacial warming consistent with Antarctic ice‐core temperatures and a Mid‐Holocene cooling, which, in combination with other paleoceanographic records, suggest a strengthening of upwelling conditions. [...]"
Source: Geophysical Research Letters
Authors: Renato Salvatteci et al.
Effects of Coastal Upwelling and Downwelling on Hydrographic Variability and Dissolved Oxygen in Mobile Bay
"Upwellling and downwelling events are important coastal processes that strongly influence shelf ecosystem dynamics. Though changes on the shelf have been well studied, the impact of these events on estuarine systems has received less focus. In summer 2016 a downwelling and upwelling event were observed near the mouth of Mobile Bay. The impact of these events were examined throughout the bay with high spatial resolution observations. Five boat surveys were conducted to capture the spatial response of offshore forcing and its changes in the estuary. In addition to the surveys, 16 CTDs were deployed and measured temporal changes. [...]"
Source: JGR Oceans
Authors: Jeffrey Coogan, Brian Dzwonkowski and John Lehrter
Pacific Decadal Oscillation and recent oxygen decline in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean
"The impact of the positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the extension of the poorly oxygenated regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean was assessed using a coupled ocean circulation–biogeochemical model. We show that during a “typical” PDO-positive phase the volume of the suboxic regions expands by 7 % over 50 years due to a slowdown of the large-scale circulation related to the decrease in the intensity of the trade winds. Changes in oxygen levels are mostly controlled by advective processes between 10∘ N and 10∘ S, whereas diffusive processes are dominant poleward of 10∘: in a “typical” PDO-positive phase the sluggish equatorial current system provides less oxygen to the eastern equatorial part of the basin while the oxygen transport by diffusive processes significantly decreases south of 10∘ S. [...]"
Authors: Olaf Duteil, Andreas Oschlies, and Claus W. Böning
Tool to Capture Marine Biological Activity Gets Coastal Upgrade
"Upwelling hinders an efficient method to estimate a key measure of biological productivity in coastal waters, but accounting for surface temperatures could boost accuracy.
Although coastal waters make up only about 10% of the surface area of the ocean, they harbor most of its life. Measuring biological activity in these regions can reveal their impact on fisheries, low-oxygen dead zones, and the global carbon cycle, but coastal zones remain understudied. Now new research by Teeter et al. suggests how to improve the accuracy of a method that uses oxygen and argon measurements to quickly estimate marine biological activity. [...]"
Reconstructing Aragonite Saturation State Based on an Empirical Relationship for Northern California
"Ocean acidification is a global phenomenon with highly regional spatial and temporal patterns. In order to address the challenges of future ocean acidification at a regional scale, it is necessary to increase the resolution of spatial and temporal monitoring of the inorganic carbon system beyond what is currently available. One approach is to develop empirical regional models that enable aragonite saturation state to be estimated from existing hydrographic measurements, for which greater spatial coverage and longer time series exist in addition to higher spatial and temporal resolution. [...]"
Source: Estuaries and Coasts
Authors: Catherine V. Davis et al.
Modulation of the vertical particle transfer efficiency in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru
"The fate of the organic matter (OM) produced by marine life controls the major biogeochemical cycles of the Earth's system. The OM produced through photosynthesis is either preserved, exported towards sediments or degraded through remineralisation in the water column. The productive eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs) associated with oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) would be expected to foster OM preservation due to low O2 conditions. But their intense and diverse microbial activity should enhance OM degradation. To investigate this contradiction, sediment traps were deployed near the oxycline and in the OMZ core on an instrumented moored line off Peru. [...]"
Authors: Marine Bretagnon et al.