Upwelling Bays: How Coastal Upwelling Controls Circulation, Habitat, and Productivity in Bays
"Bays in coastal upwelling regions are physically driven and biochemically fueled by their interaction with open coastal waters. Wind-driven flow over the shelf imposes a circulation in the bay, which is also influenced by local wind stress and thermal bay–ocean density differences. Three types of bays are recognized based on the degree of exposure to coastal currents and winds (wide-open bays, square bays, and elongated bays), and the characteristic circulation and stratification patterns of each type are described. Retention of upwelled waters in bays allows for dense phytoplankton blooms that support productive bay ecosystems. [...]"
Source: Annual Review of Marine Science
Authors: John L. Largier
Article Open Access Published: 29 November 2019 Role of synoptic activity on projected changes in upwelling-favourable winds at the ocean’s eastern bo
"The climate of the ocean’s eastern boundaries is strongly influenced by subtropical anticyclones, which drive a surface wind stress that promotes coastal upwelling of nutrient-rich subsurface water that supports high primary productivity and an abundance of food resources. Understanding the projected response of upwelling-favourable winds to climate change has broad implications for coastal biogeochemistry, ecology, and fisheries. [...]"
Source: npj Climate and Atmospheric Science
Authors: Catalina Aguirre et al.
Extinction of cold-water corals on the Namibian shelf due to low oxygen contents
"They were also able to link this event with a shift in the Benguela upwelling system, and an associated intensification of the oxygen minimum zone in this region. The team has now published their findings in the journal Geology.
Known as 'ecosystem engineers', cold-water corals play an important role in the species diversity of the deep sea. The coral species Lophelia pertusa is significantly involved in reef formation. [...]"
The Dynamics and Impact of Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia:
Insights from Sustained Investigations in the Northern California Current Large Marine Ecosystem
"Coastal upwelling ecosystems around the world are defined by wind-generated currents that bring deep, nutrient-rich waters to the surface ocean where they fuel exceptionally productive food webs. These ecosystems are also now understood to share a common vulnerability to ocean acidification and hypoxia (OAH). In the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), reports of marine life die-offs by fishers and resource managers triggered research that led to an understanding of the risks posed by hypoxia. Similarly, unprecedented losses from shellfish hatcheries led to novel insights into the coastal expression of ocean acidification. [...]"
Authors: Francis Chan et al.
Effects of upwelling duration and phytoplankton growth regime on dissolved oxygen levels in an idealized Iberian Peninsula upwelling system
"We apply a coupled modelling system composed of a state-of-the-art hydrodynamical model and a low complexity biogeochemical model to an idealized Iberian Peninsula upwelling system to identify the main drivers of dissolved oxygen variability and to study its response to changes in the duration of the upwelling season and in phytoplankton growth regime. [...]"
Source: Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (preprint)
Authors: João H. Bettencourt et al.
Fish debris in sediments from the last 25 kyr in the Humboldt Current reveal the role of productivity and oxygen on small pelagic fishes
"Upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru sustains the world’s highest production of forage fish, mostly composed of anchovy (Engraulis ringens). However, the potential impacts of climate change on upwelling dynamics and thus fish productivity in the near future are uncertain. Here, we reconstruct past changes in fish populations during the last 25,000 years to unravel their response to changes in OMZ intensity and productivity. [...]"
Source: Progress in Oceanography
Authors: RenatoSalvatteci et al.
Antarctic offshore polynyas linked to Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies
"Offshore Antarctic polynyas—large openings in the winter sea ice cover—are thought to be maintained by a rapid ventilation of deep-ocean heat through convective mixing. These rare phenomena may alter abyssal properties and circulation, yet their formation mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that concurrent upper-ocean preconditioning and meteorological perturbations are responsible for the appearance of polynyas in the Weddell Sea region of the Southern Ocean. [...]"
Authors: Ethan C. Campbell et al.
Gas exchange estimates in the Peruvian upwelling regime biased by multi-day near-surface stratification
"The coastal upwelling regime off Peru in December 2012 showed considerable vertical concentration gradients of dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) across the top few meters of the ocean. The gradients were predominantly downward, i.e., concentrations decreased toward the surface. Ignoring these gradients causes a systematic error in regionally integrated gas exchange estimates, when using observed concentrations at several meters below the surface as input for bulk flux parameterizations – as is routinely practiced. [...]"
Authors: Tim Fischer et al.
Diapycnal dissolved organic matter supply into the upper Peruvian oxycline
"The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) hosts the Peruvian upwelling system, which represents one of the most productive areas in the world ocean. High primary production followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world ocean, where dissolved oxygen (O2) concentrations reach less than 1 µmol kg−1. [...]"
Authors: Alexandra N. Loginova et al.
Remote and local drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability in the shallow oxygen minimum zone off Mauritania in June 2014
"Upwelling systems play a key role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles and are also of local relevance due to their high productivity and fish resources. To capture and understand the high spatial and temporal variability in physical and biogeochemical parameters found in these regions, novel measurement techniques have to be combined in an interdisciplinary manner. Here we use high-resolution glider-based physical–biogeochemical observations in combination with ship-based underwater vision profiler, sensor and bottle data to investigate the drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability across the shelf break off Mauritania in June 2014. [...]"
Authors: Soeren Thomsen et al.