Limited iodate reduction in shipboard seawater incubations from the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen deficient zone
"The relative abundance of the inorganic iodine species, iodide and iodate, are applied to characterize both modern and ancient marine oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). However, the rates and mechanisms responsible for in situ iodine redox transformations are poorly characterized, rendering iodine-based redox reconstructions uncertain. Here, we provide constraints on the rates and mechanisms of iodate reduction in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) offshore ODZ using a shipboard tracer–incubation method. Observations of iodate reduction from incubations[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: D.S. Hardisty et al.
In situ observations show vertical community structure of pelagic fauna in the eastern tropical North Atlantic off Cape Verde
"Distribution patterns of fragile gelatinous fauna in the open ocean remain scarcely documented. Using epi-and mesopelagic video transects in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which features a mild but intensifying midwater oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we established one of the first regional observations of diversity and abundance of large gelatinous zooplankton. We quantified the day and night vertical distribution of 46 taxa in relation to environmental conditions. While distribution may be driven by multiple factors, abundance peaks of individual taxa were observed in the OMZ[...]"
Source: Nature Scientific Reports
Authors: H. J. T. Hoving et al.
Reviews and syntheses: Present, past, and future of the oxygen minimum zone in the northern Indian Ocean
"Decreasing concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the ocean are fuconsidered one of the main threats to marine ecosystems as they jeopardize the growth of higher organisms. They also alter the marine nitrogen cycle, which is strongly bound to the carbon cycle and climate. While higher organisms in general start to suffer from oxygen concentrations < ∼ 63 µM (hypoxia), the marine nitrogen cycle responds to oxygen concentration below a threshold of about 20 µM (microbial hypoxia), whereas anoxic processes dominate the nitrogen cycle at oxygen concentrations of < ∼ 0.05 µM (functional anoxia). The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are home to approximately 21 % of the total volume of ocean waters revealing microbial hypoxia. While in the Arabian Sea this oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is also functionally anoxic[...]"
Authors: Tim Rixen et al.
Diversity and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in the oxygen minimum zones of the world oceans
"Diversity and community composition of nitrogen (N) fixing microbes in the three main oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the world ocean were investigated using operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analysis of nifH clone libraries. Representatives of three of the four main clusters of nifH genes were detected. Cluster I sequences were most diverse in the surface waters, and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Cluster II, III, and IV assemblages were most diverse at oxygen-depleted depths, and none of the sequences were closely related to sequences from cultivated organisms. The OTUs were biogeographically distinct for the most part – there was little overlap among regions, between depths, or between cDNA and DNA. In this study of all three OMZ regions, as well as from the few other published reports from individual OMZ sites, the dominance of a few OTUs was[...]"
Authors: Amal Jayakumar et al.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-5953-2020, 2020
Oceanographic processes control dissolved oxygen variability at a commercial Atlantic salmon farm: Application of a real-time sensor network
"Open ocean fish farming involves containment of cultured animals under environmental conditions influenced by seasonal variation and water quality. Recently, an important area of research focus has been on water quality monitoring to improve aquaculture management. The development of novel sensors that report in real-time is critical to improve the monitoring capacity of farms, while increasing the understanding of the dynamics of environmental variables. In this study, commercially available, real-time dissolved oxygen and temperature sensors were distributed in the center of 19 cages at a commercial[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Meredith Burke et al.
Imprint of Trace Dissolved Oxygen on Prokaryoplankton Community Structure in an Oxygen Minimum Zone
"The Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) is a large, persistent, and intensifying oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that accounts for almost half of the total area of global OMZs. Within the OMZ core (∼350–700 m depth), dissolved oxygen is typically near or below the analytical detection limit of modern sensors (∼10 nM). Steep oxygen gradients above and below the OMZ core lead to vertical structuring of microbial communities that also vary between particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) size fractions. Here, we use 16S amplicon sequencing (iTags) to analyze the[...]"
Source: Frotiers in the Marine Science
Authors: Luis Medina Faull et al.
Enhanced Organic Carbon Burial in Sediments of Oxygen Minimum Zones Upon Ocean Deoxygenation
"Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are expanding. This expansion is attributed to global warming and may continue over the next 10 to 100 kyrs due to multiple climate CO2-driven factors. The expansion of oxygen-deficient waters has the potential to enhance organic carbon burial in marine sediments, thereby providing a negative feedback on global warming. Here, we study the response of dissolved oxygen in the ocean to increased phosphorus and iron inputs due to CO2-driven enhanced weathering and increased dust emissions, respectively. We use an ocean biogeochemical model[...]"
Source: frontiers in the Marine Science
Authors: Itzel Ruvalcaba Baroni et al.
Chromium reduction and associated stable isotope fractionation restricted to anoxic shelf waters in the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone
"The marine chromium (Cr) cycle is still insufficiently understood, in particular the mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of dissolved stable Cr isotopes in seawater. Redox transformations between its main oxidation states, Cr(VI) and Cr(III), have been held accountable for the observed tight inverse logarithmic relationship between the dissolved Cr concentration [Cr] and its isotopic composition (δ53Cr), whereby isotopically light Cr(III) is removed in surface waters and oxygen minimum zones[...]"
Source: Science Direct
Authors: Philipp Nasemann et al.
Increasing ocean stratification over the past half-century
"Seawater generally forms stratified layers with lighter waters near the surface and denser waters at greater depth. This stable configuration acts as a barrier to water mixing that impacts the efficiency of vertical exchanges of heat, carbon, oxygen and other constituents. Previous quantification of stratification change has been limited to simple differencing of surface and 200-m depth changes and has neglected the spatial complexity of ocean density change. Here, we quantify changes in ocean stratification down[...]"
Source: Nature Climate Change
Authors: Guancheng Li et al.
Factors controlling plankton community production, export flux, and particulate matter stoichiometry in the coastal upwelling system off Peru
"Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) are among the most productive marine ecosystems on Earth. The production of organic material is fueled by upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters and high incident light at the sea surface. However, biotic and abiotic factors can modify surface production and related biogeochemical processes. Determining these factors is important because EBUS are considered hotspots of climate change, and reliable predictions of their future functioning requires understanding of the mechanisms driving the biogeochemical cycles therein. In this field experiment, we used in situ mesocosms as tools to improve our mechanistic understanding of processes controlling organic matter cycling in the coastal Peruvian upwelling system.[...]"
Authors: Lennart Thomas Bach et al.