News

Biological Sciences Mercury isotope signatures record photic zone euxinia in the Mesoproterozoic ocean

Abstract.

"Photic zone euxinia (PZE) is a condition where anoxic, H2S-rich waters occur in the photic zone (PZ). PZE has been invoked as an impediment to the evolution of complex life on early Earth and as a kill mechanism for Phanerozoic mass extinctions. Here, we investigate the potential application of mercury (Hg) stable isotopes in marine sedimentary rocks as a proxy for PZE by measuring Hg isotope compositions in late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 Ga) shales that have independent evidence of PZE during discrete intervals. [...]"

Source: PNAS
Authors: Wang Zheng et al.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721733115

Read the full article here.


(2010) The Growing Human Footprint on Coastal and Open-Ocean Biogeochemistry

Abstract.

"Climate change, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, excess nutrient inputs, and pollution in its many forms are fundamentally altering the chemistry of the ocean, often on a global scale and, in some cases, at rates greatly exceeding those in the historical and recent geological record. Major observed trends include a shift in the acid-base chemistry of seawater, reduced subsurface oxygen both in near-shore coastal water and in the open ocean, rising coastal nitrogen levels, and widespread increase in mercury and persistent organic pollutants. [...]"

Source: Science
Author: Scott C. Doney
DOI: 10.1126/science.1185198

Read the full article here.


The emergence of a globally productive biosphere

Abstract.

"A productive biosphere and oxygenated atmosphere are defining features of Earth and are fundamentally linked. Here I argue that cellular metabolism imposes central constraints on the historical trajectories of biopsheric productivity and atmospheric oxygenation. Photosynthesis depends on iron, but iron is highly insoluble under the aerobic conditions produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. [...]"

Source: PeerJ Preprints
Author: Rogier Braakman
DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27269v1

Read the full article here.


Marine ammonification and carbonic anhydrase activity induce rapid calcium carbonate precipitation

Abstract.

"During Earth’s history, precipitation of calcium carbonate by heterotrophic microbes has substantially contributed to the genesis of copious amounts of carbonate sediment and its subsequent lithification. Previous work identified the microbial sulfur and nitrogen cycle as principal pathways involved in the formation of marine calcium carbonate deposits. While substantial knowledge exists for the importance of the sulfur cycle, specifically sulfate reduction, with regard to carbonate formation, information about carbonate genesis connected to the microbial nitrogen cycle is dissatisfactory. [...]"

Source: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Authors: S. Krause et al
DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2018.09.018

Read the full article here.


Spatial congruence between multiple stressors in the Mediterranean Sea may reduce its resilience to climate impacts

Abstract.

"Climate impacts on marine ecosystems may be exacerbated by other, more local stressors interacting synergistically, such as pollution and overexploitation of marine resources. The reduction of these human stressors has been proposed as an achievable way of retaining ecosystems within a “safe operating space” (SOS), where they remain resilient to ongoing climate change. However, the operability of an SOS requires a thorough understanding of the spatial distribution of these climate and human impacts. [...]"

Source: Scientific Reports
Authors: Francisco Ramírez etal.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33237-w

Read the full article here.


Deep-Water Dynamics in the Subpolar North Atlantic at the End of the Quaternary

Abstract.

"In the subpolar North Atlantic, four sediment cores were taken. All of them were suitable for reconstructing the dynamics of the meridional overturning circulation in the late Quaternary. Stratigraphy of the cores was performed by carbonate analyses, study of planktonic foraminifera, and oxygen isotopic composition in Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin. Study of benthonic foraminifera assemblages has shown significant differences in the deep-water dynamics in the late Quaternary related to water exchange between the North Atlantic and Arctic seas. [...]"

Source: Oceanology
Authors: N.P. Lukashina
DOI: 10.1134/S0001

Read the full article here.


Photosynthesis by marine algae produces sound, contributing to the daytime soundscape on coral reefs

Abstract.

"We have observed that marine macroalgae produce sound during photosynthesis. The resultant soundscapes correlate with benthic macroalgal cover across shallow Hawaiian coral reefs during the day, despite the presence of other biological noise. Likely ubiquitous but previously overlooked, this source of ambient biological noise in the coastal ocean is driven by local supersaturation of oxygen near the surface of macroalgal filaments, and the resultant formation and release of oxygen-containing bubbles into the water column. During release, relaxation of the bubble to a spherical shape creates a monopole sound source that ‘rings’ at the Minnaert frequency. [...]"

Source: PLOS ONE
Authors: Simon E. Freeman et al.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201766

Read the full article here.


GO2NE Summer School 2019

The IOC- GO2NE SS2019: The Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE) from the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC-UNESCO) organizes an international Summer School that will be held from September 2 to 8, 2019 in China on Xiamen University Xiang’an Campus which hosts the State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science.

The IOC- GO2NE SS2019 will bring together 40 PhD students and early career scientists with 16 world-leading international scientists. It aims to connect young researchers with leading scientists from the academic and SMEs world working on oxygen not only in a theoretical framework, but also through practical sessions on laboratory experiments, field work, modelling and special sessions on communication, ethics, and engagement with stakeholder (see “Program”). 

The IOC-GO2NE vision is to provide scientific knowledge and educate the young generation of scientists for ‘the Ocean we need for the Future we want’ (IOC-UNESCO brochure – International Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development’).

Follow this link to register on the official homepage.


../common/calendar Start Date: 9/1/19

Last interglacial ocean changes in the Bahamas: climate teleconnections between low and high latitudes

Abstract.

"Paleorecords and modeling studies suggest that instabilities in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) strongly affect the low-latitude climate, namely via feedbacks on the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Despite the pronounced millennial-scale overturning and climatic variability documented in the subpolar North Atlantic during the last interglacial period (MIS 5e), studies on cross-latitudinal teleconnections remain very limited. This precludes a full understanding of the mechanisms controlling subtropical climate evolution across the last warm cycle. [...]"

Source: Climate of the Past
Authors: Anastasia Zhuravleva and Henning A. Bauch
DOI: 10.5194/cp-14-1361-2018

Read the full article here.


Redox condition and nitrogen cycle in the Permian deep mid-ocean: A possible contrast between Panthalassa and Tethys

Abstract.

"To constrain the redox conditions and related nitrogen cycles during the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) to latest Late Permian (Lopingian) deep mid-Panthalassa, we determined the abundances of major, trace, and rare earth elements along with the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in shales interbedded with deep-sea cherts that are well-exposed at the Gujo-Hachiman section in the Mino-Tanba belt, SW Japan. [...]"

Source: Global and Planetary Change
Authors: Wataru Fujisaki et al.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.09.015

Read the full article here.


Showing 1 - 10 of 361 results.
Items per Page 10
of 37